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Criação de empresas em Portugal e Espanha: análise comparativa com base nos dados do Banco Mundial

Author

Listed:
  • Elsa de Morais Sarmento

    () (Departamento de Economia, Gestão e Engenharia Industrial, Universidade de Aveiro)

  • Alcina Nunes

    () (Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança)

Abstract

Do Inquérito ao Empreendedorismo do Banco Mundial (WBGES 2008) resultou uma extensa base de dados de cerca de uma centena de países, baseada em dados dos registos notariais. Com base nesta fonte de informação, exploram-se as trajectórias de evolução da criação de empresas entre 2000 e 2007 entre dois países geográfica e economicamente próximos, Portugal e Espanha, e destes países relativamente à União Europeia e à OCDE, bem como a outros países e fontes de informação. Análises anteriores, com base noutras fontes de informação, apontam para taxas de criação de empresas em Portugal superiores às de Espanha. Os dados do WBGES permitem validar essas conclusões. Porém, Portugal evidencia uma volatilidade superior no registo de empresas. Em 2001, o elevado acréscimo no registo de novas empresas representa um fenómeno isolado e específico para Portugal, não havendo paralelo nem nos países europeus da coesão, nem ao nível da média da União Europeia. O projecto Empresa na Hora não teve um impacto visível a nível do registo de empresas, considerando a evolução ao longo deste período. Por outro lado, Espanha detém uma densidade empresarial considerável, não só do total de empresas registadas, mas também do registo de novas empresas, apesar de Portugal apresentar taxas de crescimento médias superiores do registo de novas empresas, indiciando maiores taxas de sobrevivência empresarial que as existentes em Portugal. No entanto, de acordo com os dados dos registos de criação de empresas, apesar de Portugal e Espanha apresentarem densidades empresariais superiores à média da União Europeia e da OCDE, possuem taxas de registo de novas empresas relativamente mais baixas, o que leva a concluir por uma relativa menor dinâmica empresarial na criação de novas empresas. Finalmente, constata-se que as taxas de criação de empresas baseadas no WBGES 2008 são menos elevadas do que as obtidas quando se considera o universo de empresas economicamente activas. Este facto indica que análises comparativas de empreendedorismo não devem considerar isoladamente os dados oficiais de registo de empresas, devendo ser complementadas com outras fontes de informação, onde esteja representado o universo relevante de empresas que se encontrem efectivamente em actividade.

Suggested Citation

  • Elsa de Morais Sarmento & Alcina Nunes, 2011. "Criação de empresas em Portugal e Espanha: análise comparativa com base nos dados do Banco Mundial," GEE Papers 0036, Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos, Ministério da Economia, revised May 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:mde:wpaper:0036
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    File URL: http://www.gee.gov.pt/RePEc/WorkingPapers/GEE_PAPERS_36.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2010
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Alcina Nunes & Elsa de Morais Sarmento, 2010. "Business Survival in Portuguese Regions," GEMF Working Papers 2010-22, GEMF, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Empreendedorismo; Registo de empresas; Portugal; Espanha; Banco Mundial; WBGES;

    JEL classification:

    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • M21 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Economics - - - Business Economics
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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