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Criação de empresas em Portugal e Espanha: análise comparativa com base nos dados do Banco Mundial

  • Elsa de Morais Sarmento

    ()

    (Departamento de Economia, Gestão e Engenharia Industrial, Universidade de Aveiro)

  • Alcina Nunes

    ()

    (Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança)

Do Inquérito ao Empreendedorismo do Banco Mundial (WBGES 2008) resultou uma extensa base de dados de cerca de uma centena de países, baseada em dados dos registos notariais. Com base nesta fonte de informação, exploram-se as trajectórias de evolução da criação de empresas entre 2000 e 2007 entre dois países geográfica e economicamente próximos, Portugal e Espanha, e destes países relativamente à União Europeia e à OCDE, bem como a outros países e fontes de informação. Análises anteriores, com base noutras fontes de informação, apontam para taxas de criação de empresas em Portugal superiores às de Espanha. Os dados do WBGES permitem validar essas conclusões. Porém, Portugal evidencia uma volatilidade superior no registo de empresas. Em 2001, o elevado acréscimo no registo de novas empresas representa um fenómeno isolado e específico para Portugal, não havendo paralelo nem nos países europeus da coesão, nem ao nível da média da União Europeia. O projecto Empresa na Hora não teve um impacto visível a nível do registo de empresas, considerando a evolução ao longo deste período. Por outro lado, Espanha detém uma densidade empresarial considerável, não só do total de empresas registadas, mas também do registo de novas empresas, apesar de Portugal apresentar taxas de crescimento médias superiores do registo de novas empresas, indiciando maiores taxas de sobrevivência empresarial que as existentes em Portugal. No entanto, de acordo com os dados dos registos de criação de empresas, apesar de Portugal e Espanha apresentarem densidades empresariais superiores à média da União Europeia e da OCDE, possuem taxas de registo de novas empresas relativamente mais baixas, o que leva a concluir por uma relativa menor dinâmica empresarial na criação de novas empresas. Finalmente, constata-se que as taxas de criação de empresas baseadas no WBGES 2008 são menos elevadas do que as obtidas quando se considera o universo de empresas economicamente activas. Este facto indica que análises comparativas de empreendedorismo não devem considerar isoladamente os dados oficiais de registo de empresas, devendo ser complementadas com outras fontes de informação, onde esteja representado o universo relevante de empresas que se encontrem efectivamente em actividade.

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File URL: http://www.gee.min-economia.pt/RePEc/WorkingPapers/GEE_PAPERS_36.pdf
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Paper provided by Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos, Ministério da Economia e da Inovação in its series GEE Papers with number 0036.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: May 2011
Date of revision: May 2011
Handle: RePEc:mde:wpaper:0036
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  1. Holger Görg & Eric Strobl & Frances Ruane, 2000. "The Determinants Of Firm Start-Up Size: A Comparison Of Ireland And Portugal," Trinity Economics Papers 20008, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  2. Audretsch, David B., 1995. "Innovation, growth and survival," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 441-457, December.
  3. Alcina Nunes & Elsa Sarmento, 2010. "Business Demography Dynamics in Portugal: A Non-Parametric Survival Analysis," GEMF Working Papers 2010-09, GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra.
  4. Luís Cabral, 2007. "Small firms in Portugal: a selective survey of stylized facts, economic analysis, and policy implications," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 65-88, April.
  5. Alcina Nunes & Elsa Sarmento, 2010. "Business Demography Dynamics in Portugal: a Semi-parametric Survival Analysis," GEE Papers 0023, Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos, Ministério da Economia e da Inovação, revised Sep 2010.
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  7. Leora Klapper & Raphael Amit & Mauro F. Guillén, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and Firm Formation across Countries," NBER Chapters, in: International Differences in Entrepreneurship, pages 129-158 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Zoltan J. Acs & Mark Sanders, 2008. "Intellectual Property Rights and the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship," Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-069, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  9. Elsa Morais Sarmento & Alcina Nunes, 2010. "Business creation in Portugal: Comparison between the World Bank data and Quadros de Pessoal," GEE Papers 0029, Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos, Ministério da Economia e da Inovação, revised Dec 2010.
  10. Bartelsman, Eric & Haltiwanger, John C. & Scarpetta, Stefano, 2004. "Microeconomic Evidence of Creative Destruction in Industrial and Developing Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 1374, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Zoltan Acs & Niels Bosma & Rolf Sternberg, 2008. "The Entrepreneurial Advantage of World Cities - Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data," Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-063, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  12. Paloma López-García & Sergio Puente, 2006. "Business demography in Spain: determinants of firm survival," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0608, Banco de Espa�a.
  13. repec:dgr:uvatin:20040114 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Eric Bartelsman & Stefano Scarpetta & Fabiano Schivardi, 2005. "Comparative analysis of firm demographics and survival: evidence from micro-level sources in OECD countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 365-391, June.
  15. Klapper, Leora & Delgado, Juan Manuel Quesada, 2009. "The impact of the business environment on the business creation process," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4937, The World Bank.
  16. Acs, Zoltan J. & Desai, Sameeksha & Klapper, Leora F, 2008. "What does"entrepreneurship"data really show ? a comparison of the global entrepreneurship monitor and World Bank group datasets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4667, The World Bank.
  17. Elsa Morais Sarmento & Alcina Nunes, 2011. "Survival dynamics in Portugal, a regional perspective," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1313, European Regional Science Association.
  18. Kaufmann, Daniel & Kraay, Aart & Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo, 1999. "Aggregating governance indicators," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2195, The World Bank.
  19. Sanghoon Ahn, 2001. "Firm Dynamics and Productivity Growth: A Review of Micro Evidence from OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 297, OECD Publishing.
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