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The Entrepreneurial Advantage of World Cities - Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data

Author

Listed:
  • Zoltan Acs

    (George Mason University, Washington D.C.and Max Planck Institute of Economics)

  • Niels Bosma

    () (Utrecht University, EIM Business + Policy Research, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association)

  • Rolf Sternberg

    (University of Hannover)

Abstract

Recent discussions in the Economic Geography literature increasingly focus on creative cities and the importance of creativity for achieving economic growth. Considering the increased attention on urban areas it is not surprising that the regional dimension of entrepreneurship is a subject of great interest. We set out a framework encompassing the individual process between entrepreneurial perceptions and entrepreneurial activity and demonstrate how the urban environment can have an impact on this process. We create entrepreneurship indices for 34 world cities exploiting the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Database 2001-2006. We investigate differences between the city-level and country-level for a selection of the indices. These exercises can be seen as initial tests of the ‘entrepreneurial advantage of cities.’ Based on the literature we expect that most indices will be higher for world cities, although exceptions are also plausible, for instance in world cities where the government resides. Our findings predominantly confirm the entrepreneurial advantage of world cities.

Suggested Citation

  • Zoltan Acs & Niels Bosma & Rolf Sternberg, 2008. "The Entrepreneurial Advantage of World Cities - Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data," Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-063, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
  • Handle: RePEc:jrp:jrpwrp:2008-063
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Philip McCann & Zoltán J. Ács, 2015. "Globalization: Countries, Cities and Multinationals," Chapters, in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 19, pages 371-386, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. D.B. Audretsch & A.R. Thurik, 2010. "Unraveling the Shift to the Entrepreneurial Economy," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-080/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 02 Apr 2011.
    3. Beynon, Malcolm J. & Jones, Paul & Pickernell, David, 2016. "Country-based comparison analysis using fsQCA investigating entrepreneurial attitudes and activity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(4), pages 1271-1276.
    4. Ribes-Giner, G. & Moya-Clemente, I. & Cervelló-Royo, R. & Perello-Marin, M.R., 2018. "Domestic economic and social conditions empowering female entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 182-189.
    5. Chantal Hartog & Brigitte Hoogendoorn & Sophie Bacq & Jan Lepoutre, 2011. "Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Exploring individual and organizational characteristics," Scales Research Reports H201110, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    6. Andrés Rodríguez-Pose & Rune Dahl Fitjar, 2013. "Buzz, Archipelago Economies and the Future of Intermediate and Peripheral Areas in a Spiky World," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(3), pages 355-372, March.
    7. Francisco Liñán & David Urbano & Maribel Guerrero, 2009. "Regional variations in entrepreneurial cognitions: Start-up intentions of university students in Spain," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3-4), pages 187-215, August.
    8. Emilia Vázquez & Sofia Gomes & Elvira Vieira, 2011. "Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Spanish and Portuguese Regions," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1537, European Regional Science Association.
    9. Cervelló-Royo, R. & Moya-Clemente, I. & Perelló-Marín, M.R. & Ribes-Giner, G., 2020. "Sustainable development, economic and financial factors, that influence the opportunity-driven entrepreneurship. An fsQCA approach," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 393-402.
    10. Daniel Arribas-Bel & Karima Kourtit & Peter Nijkamp, 2013. "Socio-cultural Diversity and Urban Buzz," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-110/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    11. Philip McCann, 2009. "Economic geography, globalisation and New Zealand's productivity paradox," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(3), pages 279-314.
    12. Elsa de Morais Sarmento & Alcina Nunes, 2011. "Criação de empresas em Portugal e Espanha: análise comparativa com base nos dados do Banco Mundial," GEE Papers 0036, Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos, Ministério da Economia, revised May 2011.
    13. Palmberg, Johanna, 2013. "Spontaneous Orders and the Emergence of Economically Powerful Cities," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 310, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    14. Moutinho, Ricardo & Au-Yong-Oliveira, Manuel & Coelho, Arnaldo & Manso, José Pires, 2015. "Beyond the “Innovation's Black-Box”: Translating R&D outlays into employment and economic growth," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 45-58.
    15. Katharina Fellnhofer, 2017. "Facilitating entrepreneurial discovery in smart specialisation via stakeholder participation within online mechanisms for knowledge-based policy advice," Cogent Business & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 1296802-129, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    entrepreneurship; world cities; entrepreneurial perceptions; entrepreneurial activity; urbanization; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure

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