Determinants of outpatient antibiotic consumption in Europe: bacterial resistance and drug prescribers
This paper investigates socioeconomic determinants of outpatient antibiotic consumption in Europe. Comparable data on antibiotic use measured in the defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants (DID) are currently provided by the ESAC project. Results from applied econometric estimations for panel data reveal a link between antibiotic use and the per capita income, the demographic structure of the population, the level of education and cultural aspects. Supply-side factors, such as the density of providers and their remuneration methods, are also considered. We provide the first estimate of the impact of bacterial resistance on consumption when the e?ect of other determinants is simultaneously taken into account.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: https://www.bul.sbu.usi.ch|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rizzo, John A, 1999. "Advertising and Competition in the Ethical Pharmaceutical Industry: The Case of Antihypertensive Drugs," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(1), pages 89-116, April.
- Laxminarayan, Ramanan & Weitzman, Martin L., 2002. "On the implications of endogenous resistance to medications," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 709-718, July.
- Di Matteo, Livio, 2005. "The macro determinants of health expenditure in the United States and Canada: assessing the impact of income, age distribution and time," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 23-42, January.
- Filippini, Massimo & Masiero, Giuliano & Moschetti, Karine, 2006. "Socioeconomic determinants of regional differences in outpatient antibiotic consumption: Evidence from Switzerland," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 77-92, August.
- Hunt-McCool, Janet & Kiker, B F & Ng, Ying Chu, 1994. "Estimates of the Demand for Medical Care under Different Functional Forms," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(2), pages 201-18, April-Jun.
- Elamin H. Elbasha, 2003. "Deadweight loss of bacterial resistance due to overtreatment," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 125-138.
- Adriana Lleras-Muney & Frank R. Lichtenberg, 2002. "The Effect of Education on Medical Technology Adoption: Are the More Educated More Likely to Use New Drugs," NBER Working Papers 9185, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Michael Baye & Robert Maness & Steven Wiggins, 1997. "Demand systems and the true subindex of the cost of living for pharmaceuticals," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(9), pages 1179-1190.
- Rudholm, Niklas, 2002. "Economic implications of antibiotic resistance in a global economy," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 1071-1083, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lug:wpaper:0702. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alessio Tutino)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.