Managing increasing environmental risks through agro-biodiversity and agri-environmental policies
Agro-biodiversity can provide natural insurance to risk-averse farmers by reducing the variance of crop yield, and to society at large by reducing the uncertainty in the provision of public-good ecosystem services such as e.g. CO2 storage. We analyze the choice of agro-biodiversity by risk-averse farmers who have access to financial insurance, and study the implications for agri-environmental policy design when on-farm agro-biodiversity generates a positive risk externality. While increasing environmental risk leads private farmers to increase their level of on-farm agro-biodiversity, the level of agro-biodiversity in the laissez-faire equilibrium remains ineciently low. We show how either one of two agri-environmental policy instruments can cure this risk-related market failure: an ex-ante Pigouvian subsidy on on-farm agro-biodiversity and an ex-post compensation payment for the actual provision of public environmental benefits. In the absence of regulation, welfare may increase rather than decrease with increasing environmental risk, if the agroecosystems is characterized by a high natural insurance function, low costs and large external benefits of agro-biodiversity.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- J. K. Horowitz & E. Lichtenberg, 1994. "Risk-Reducing And Risk-Increasing Effects Of Pesticides," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(1), pages 82-89.
- Heal, Geoffrey M. & Small, Arthur A., 2002. "Agriculture and ecosystem services," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, in: B. L. Gardner & G. C. Rausser (ed.), Handbook of Agricultural Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 25, pages 1341-1341 Elsevier.
- Sandler, Todd & Sternbenz, Frederic P., 1990. "Harvest uncertainty and the tragedy of the commons," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 155-167, March.
- Di Falco, Salvatore & Chavas, Jean-Paul & Smale, Melinda, 2006. "Farmer management of production risk on degraded lands: the role of wheat genetic diversity in Tigray Region, Ethiopia," EPTD discussion papers 153, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- World Bank, 2005. "Managing Agricultural Production Risk : Innovations in Developing Countries," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14434, The World Bank.
- Di Falco, Salvatore & Perrings, Charles, 2005.
"Crop biodiversity, risk management and the implications of agricultural assistance,"
Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 459-466, December.
- Salvatore Di Falco & Charles Perrings, 2004. "Crop Biodiversity, Risk Management and the Implications of Agricultural Assistance," Working Papers 0084, National University of Ireland Galway, Department of Economics, revised 2004.
- Nick Hanley & David Oglethorpe, 1999. "Emerging Policies on Externalities from Agriculture: An Analysis for the European Union," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1222-1227.
- Olivier Mahul, 2001. "Optimal Insurance Against Climatic Experience," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(3), pages 593-604.
- Melinda Smale & Jason Hartell & Paul W. Heisey & Ben Senauer, 1998. "The Contribution of Genetic Resources and Diversity to Wheat Production in the Punjab of Pakistan," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(3), pages 482-493.
- Salvatore Di Falco & Charles Perrings, 2003. "Crop Genetic Diversity, Productivity and Stability of Agroecosystems. A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 50(2), pages 207-216, 05.
- Heal, Geoffrey & Walker, Brian & Levin, Simon & Arrow, Kenneth & Dasgupta, Partha & Daily, Gretchen & Ehrlich, Paul & Maler, Karl-Goran & Kautsky, Nils & Lubchenco, Jane, 2004. "Genetic diversity and interdependent crop choices in agriculture," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 175-184, June.
- Martin F. Quaas & Stefan Baumgärtner, 2006.
"Natural vs. financial insurance in the management of public-good ecosystems,"
Working Paper Series in Economics
34, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
- Quaas, Martin F. & Baumgärtner, Stefan, 2008. "Natural vs. financial insurance in the management of public-good ecosystems," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 397-406, April.
- Yann Bramoullé & Nicolas Treich, 2009. "Can Uncertainty Alleviate the Commons Problem?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(5), pages 1042-1067, 09.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lue:wpaper:80. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Wagner)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.