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Wie wirken die automatischen Stabilisatoren in der Wirtschaftskrise? Deutschland im Vergleich mit der EU und den USA

Author

Listed:
  • Dolls, Mathias

    (University of Cologne)

  • Fuest, Clemens

    (University of Oxford)

  • Peichl, Andreas

    (IZA)

Abstract

Dieser Beitrag vergleicht die automatischen Stabilisierungswirkungen der Steuer- und Transfersysteme in der Europäischen Union und in den USA in der aktuellen Wirtschaftskrise. Dazu werden zwei Szenarien simuliert: erstens ein proportionaler Einkommensschock, in dem alle Bruttoeinkommen um 5 Prozent sinken, sowie zweitens eine Erhöhung der Arbeitslosenquote um 5 Prozentpunkte. Unsere Berechnungen ergeben, dass in der EU 38 % des proportionalen Einkommensschocks vom Staat absorbiert werden, verglichen mit 32 % in den USA. Im Fall des Beschäftigungsschocks ist der Unterschied zwischen Europa und den USA deutlich größer: 48 % in der EU und lediglich 34 % in den USA. Unter der Annahme, dass nur die Nachfrage kreditrationierter Haushalte auf Schwankungen des laufenden verfügbaren Einkommens reagiert, führt die Glättung des verfügbaren Einkommens zu einer Nachfragestabilisierung, die in der EU von 23 bis 32 % des Einkommensschocks reicht und in den USA 19 % beträgt. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen eine große Heterogenität innerhalb der EU. Die automatischen Stabilisatoren sind in ost- und südeuropäischen Ländern bedeutend geringer als in Mittel- und Nordeuropa. Deutschland liegt bei der Einkommensstabilisierung in beiden Szenarien im oberen Bereich, bei der Nachfragestabilisierung dagegen im mittleren Bereich der europäischen Länder, da Kreditbeschränkungen in wohlhabenden Ländern wie Deutschland keine so große Rolle spielen.

Suggested Citation

  • Dolls, Mathias & Fuest, Clemens & Peichl, Andreas, 2009. "Wie wirken die automatischen Stabilisatoren in der Wirtschaftskrise? Deutschland im Vergleich mit der EU und den USA," IZA Standpunkte 19, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izasps:sp19
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Alfred Katterl & Walpurga Köhler-Töglhofer, 2018. "Stabilization and shock absorption instruments in the EU and the euro area – the status quo," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q2/18, pages 87-110.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fiskalischer Stimulus; Kreditbeschränkungen; Wirtschaftskrise; Automatische Stabilisatoren;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E63 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization; Treasury Policy
    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household

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