Unemployment Insurance in Welfare States: Soft Constraints and Mild Sanctions
Based on a sequence of reforms in the Norwegian unemployment insurance (UI) system, we show that activity-oriented UI regimes – i.e., regimes with a high likelihood of required participation in active labor market programs, duration limitations on unconditional UI entitlements, and high sanction probabilities – deliver substantially shorter unemployment spells than pure income-insurance regimes. Soft constraints, in the form of activity requirements or small benefit cuts after a pre-specified UI duration, have many of the same behavioral consequences as threats of complete benefit termination. Early introduction of a soft constraint appears particularly effective; our results show that the expected unemployment duration falls by half a day for each week the soft constraint is moved ahead in the UI spell. Mild sanctions, in the form of temporary benefit terminations in response to inadequate search effort or excess choosiness, cause a significant rise in the job hazard.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as 'Unemployment Insurance in Welfare States: The Impacts of Soft Duration Constraints' in: Journal of the European Economic Association, 2012, 10 (3), 518-554|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Van den Berg, Gerard J., 2000.
"Duration Models: Specification, Identification, and Multiple Durations,"
9446, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Van den Berg, Gerard J., 2001. "Duration models: specification, identification and multiple durations," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 55, pages 3381-3460 Elsevier.
- David Card & Raj Chetty & Andrea Weber, 2007.
"The Spike at Benefit Exhaustion: Leaving the Unemployment System or Starting a New Job?,"
NBER Working Papers
12893, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Card & Raj Chetty & Andrea Weber, 2007. "The Spike at Benefit Exhaustion: Leaving the Unemployment System or Starting a New Job?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 113-118, May.
- Card, David & Chetty, Raj & Weber, Andrea, 2007. "The Spike at Benefit Exhaustion: Leaving the Unemployment System or Starting a New Job?," IZA Discussion Papers 2590, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- van den Berg, G., 1987.
"Nonstationarity in job search theory,"
c2b931bf-9cce-4bae-929c-b, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Card, David & Levine, Phillip B., 2000.
"Extended benefits and the duration of UI spells: evidence from the New Jersey extended benefit program,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 78(1-2), pages 107-138, October.
- David Card & Phillip B. Levine, 1998. "Extended Benefits and the Duration of UI Spells: Evidence from the New Jersey Extended Benefit Program," NBER Working Papers 6714, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Meyer, Bruce D, 1990.
"Unemployment Insurance and Unemployment Spells,"
Econometric Society, vol. 58(4), pages 757-82, July.
- Lawrence F. Katz & Bruce D. Meyer, 1988.
"The Impact of the Potential Duration of Unemployment Benefits on the Duration of Unemployment,"
NBER Working Papers
2741, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Katz, Lawrence F. & Meyer, Bruce D., 1990. "The impact of the potential duration of unemployment benefits on the duration of unemployment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 45-72, February.
- Bratberg, E. & Vaage, K., 2000.
"Spell Durations with Long Unemployment Insurance Periods,"
Norway; Department of Economics, University of Bergen
208, Department of Economics, University of Bergen.
- Bratberg, Espen & Vaage, Kjell, 2000. "Spell durations with long unemployment insurance periods," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 153-180, March.
- Laura Larsson, 2006. "Sick of Being Unemployed? Interactions between Unemployment and Sickness Insurance," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 108(1), pages 97-113, 03.
- Knut Røed & Peter Jensen & Anna Thoursie, 2008. "Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance: a comparative analysis based on Scandinavian micro data," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(2), pages 254-274, April.
- Gaure, Simen & Røed, Knut & Zhang, Tao, 2005.
"Time and Causality: A Monte Carlo Assessment of the Timing-of-Events Approach,"
19/2005, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
- Gaure, Simen & Roed, Knut & Zhang, Tao, 2007. "Time and causality: A Monte Carlo assessment of the timing-of-events approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 141(2), pages 1159-1195, December.
- Heckman, James & Singer, Burton, 1984. "A Method for Minimizing the Impact of Distributional Assumptions in Econometric Models for Duration Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 271-320, March.
- Goffe, William L. & Ferrier, Gary D. & Rogers, John, 1994. "Global optimization of statistical functions with simulated annealing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 65-99.
- Carling, Kenneth & Edin, Per-Anders & Harkman, Anders & Holmlund, Bertil, 1996. "Unemployment duration, unemployment benefits, and labor market programs in Sweden," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 313-334, March.
- Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 1996.
"Potential Unemployment Benefit Duration and Spell Length: Lessons from a Quasi-experiment in Austria,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1534, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 1998. "Potential Unemployment Benefit Duration and Spell Length: Lessons from a Quasi-Experiment in Austria," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(1), pages 33-45, February.
- Fitzenberger, Bernd & Wilke, Ralf A., 2004.
"Unemployment Durations in West-Germany Before and After the Reform of the Unemployment Compensation System During the 1980s,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
04-24, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Bernd Fitzenberger & Ralf A. Wilke, 2010. "Unemployment Durations in West Germany Before and After the Reform of the Unemployment Compensation System during the 1980s," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 11, pages 336-366, 08.
- Knut Roed & Tao Zhang, 2003. "Does Unemployment Compensation Affect Unemployment Duration?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(484), pages 190-206, January.
- Gaure, Simen & Røed, Knut, 2003. "How Tight is the Labour Market? A Micro-Based Macro Indicator," Memorandum 09/2003, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
- Dale T. Mortensen, 1977. "Unemployment Insurance and Job Search Decisions," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(4), pages 505-517, July.
- Jennifer Hunt, 1992.
"The Effect of Unemployment Compensation on Unemployment Duration in Germany,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
50, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Hunt, Jennifer, 1995. "The Effect of Unemployment Compensation on Unemployment Duration in Germany," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(1), pages 88-120, January.
- Jaap H. Abbring & Gerard J. Berg & Jan C. Ours, 2005. "The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Sanctions on the Transition Rate from Unemployment to Employment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(505), pages 602-630, 07.
- Jaap H. Abbring & Gerard J. van den Berg, 2003. "The Nonparametric Identification of Treatment Effects in Duration Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1491-1517, 09.
- Knut Røed & Oddbjørn Raaum, 2006. "Do Labour Market Programmes Speed up the Return to Work?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 68(5), pages 541-568, October.
- Roed, Knut & Zhang, Tao, 2005. "Unemployment duration and economic incentives--a quasi random-assignment approach," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1799-1825, October.
- Brinch, Christian N., 2007. "Nonparametric Identification Of The Mixed Hazards Model With Time-Varying Covariates," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(02), pages 349-354, April.
- Lars Pico Geerdsen, 2006. "Is there a Threat Effect of Labour Market Programmes? A Study of ALMP in the Danish UI System," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(513), pages 738-750, 07.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2877. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.