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Kids or Courses? Gender Differences in the Effects of Active Labor Market Policies

  • Lechner, Michael

    ()

    (University of St. Gallen)

  • Wiehler, Stephan

    ()

    (University of St. Gallen)

This paper investigates active labor market programs in Austria with a special emphasis on male-female effect heterogeneity. On average, we find only small effects, if any, for most of the programs. A crucial advantage of the large and informative administrative data we use is that it provides records about pregnancies and times of parental leave, in addition to the information that can typically be found in European administrative data sources used for evaluating active labor market policies. We show that these variables play a key role in removing selection bias and defining outcome variables which may explain why other similar studies found such programs to be more effective for women than for men. In particular for younger women a key effect of the programs is to reduce or postpone pregnancies and to increase the attachment to the labor force. After taking into account gender specific selection effects and the effects of the programs on pregnancies, gender differences (almost) disappear.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2740.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2007
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of Population Economics, 2011, 24 (3), 783-812
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2740
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  1. Michael Gerfin & Michael Lechner & Heidi Steiger, 2003. "Does subsidised temporary employment get the unemployed back to work? An econometric analysis of two different schemes," Diskussionsschriften dp0303, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
  2. Wunsch, Conny & Lechner, Michael, 2007. "What Did All the Money Do? On the General Ineffectiveness of Recent West German Labour Market Programmes," IZA Discussion Papers 2800, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Forslund, Anders & Johansson, Per & Lindqvist, Linus, 2004. "Employment subsidies - A fast lane from unemployment to work?," Working Paper Series 2004:18, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  4. Hujer, Reinhard & Thomsen, Stephan L. & Zeiss, Christopher, 2004. "The Effects of Vocational Training Programmes on the Duration of Unemployment in Eastern Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1117, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Jochen Kluve & Hartmut Lehmann & Christopher Schmidt, 1998. "Active Labor Market Policies in Poland: Human Capital Enhancement, Stigmatization or Benefit Churning?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 215, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  6. Lechner, Michael, 1999. "Earnings and Employment Effects of Continuous Off-the-Job Training in East Germany after Unification," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(1), pages 74-90, January.
  7. Gerfin, Michael & Lechner, Michael, 2000. "Microeconometric Evaluation of the Active Labour Market Policy in Switzerland," IZA Discussion Papers 154, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Marco Caliendo & Reinhard Hujer & Stephan Thomsen, 2008. "Identifying effect heterogeneity to improve the efficiency of job creation schemes in Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(9), pages 1101-1122.
  9. van Ours, Jan C., 2002. "The Locking-in Effect of Subsidized Jobs," IZA Discussion Papers 527, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity score matching methods for non-experimental causal studies," Discussion Papers 0102-14, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
  11. Guido W. Imbens, 2004. "Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Under Exogeneity: A Review," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 4-29, February.
  12. Lechner, Michael & Wunsch, Conny, 2006. "Active labour market policy in East Germany : waiting for the economy to take off," IAB Discussion Paper 200620, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  13. J. Kluve & H. Lehmann & C. M. Schmidt, 2007. "Disentangling Treatment Effects of Active Labor Market Policies: The Role of Labor Force Status Sequences," Working Papers 620, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  14. Zweimuller, Josef & Winter- Ebmer, Rudolf, 1992. "Manpower Training Programs and Employment Stability," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt87z0674q, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  15. Joffe, Marshall M. & Ten Have, Thomas R. & Feldman, Harold I. & Kimmel, Stephen E., 2004. "Model Selection, Confounder Control, and Marginal Structural Models: Review and New Applications," The American Statistician, American Statistical Association, vol. 58, pages 272-279, November.
  16. Lechner, Michael & Miquel, Ruth & Wunsch, Conny, 2005. "The curse and blessing of training the unemployed in a changing economy : the case of East Germany after unification," IAB Discussion Paper 200514, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  17. van Ours, J.C., 2004. "The locking-in effect of subsidized jobs," Other publications TiSEM c4fd99a1-4c2f-46c6-9ee2-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  18. Daniel Friedlander & David H. Greenberg & Philip K. Robins, 1997. "Evaluating Government Training Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(4), pages 1809-1855, December.
  19. Bergemann, Annette & van den Berg, Gerard J., 2006. "Active Labor Market Policy Effects for Women in Europe: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 2365, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. Hujer, Reinhard & Caliendo, Marco & Thomsen, Stephan L., 2004. "New evidence on the effects of job creation schemes in Germany--a matching approach with threefold heterogeneity," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(4), pages 257-302, December.
  21. Michael Lechner & Conny Wunsch, 2009. "Active labour market policy in East Germany," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(4), pages 661-702, October.
  22. Weber, Andrea & Hofer, Helmut, 2004. "Are Job Search Programs a Promising Tool? A Microeconometric Evaluation for Austria," IZA Discussion Papers 1075, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  23. Heckman, James J. & Lalonde, Robert J. & Smith, Jeffrey A., 1999. "The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1865-2097 Elsevier.
  24. Weber, Andrea & Hofer, Helmut, 2004. "Employment Effects of Early Interventions on Job Search Programs," IZA Discussion Papers 1076, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  25. Lechner, Michael & Miquel, Ruth & Wunsch, Conny, 2004. "Long-Run Effects of Public Sector Sponsored Training in West Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1443, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  26. Marco Caliendo & Reinhard Hujer & Stephan L. Thomsen, 2006. "Sectoral Heterogeneity in the Employment Effects of Job Creation Schemes in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 226(2), pages 139-179, March.
  27. Carling, Kenneth & Richardson, Katarina, 2004. "The relative efficiency of labor market programs: Swedish experience from the 1990s," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 335-354, June.
  28. Rafael Lalive & Jan C. van Ours & Josef Zweimueller, . "The Impact of Active Labor Market Programs on the Duration of Unemployment," IEW - Working Papers 041, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
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