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Kids or Courses? Gender Differences in the Effects of Active Labor Market Policies

  • Michael Lechner

    ()

  • Stephan Wiehler

    ()

This paper investigates active labor market programs in Austria with a special emphasis on male-female effect heterogeneity. On average, we find only small effects, if any, for most of the programs. A crucial advantage of the large and informative administrative data we use is that it provides records about pregnancies and times of parental leave, in addition to the information that can typically be found in European administrative data sources used for evaluating active labour market policies. We show that these variables play a key role in removing selection bias and defining outcome variables which may explain why other similar studies found such programs to be more effective for women than for men. In particular for younger women a key effect of the programs is to reduce or postpone pregnancies and to increase the attachment to the labor force. After taking into account gender specific selection effects and the effects of the programs on pregnancies, gender differences (almost) disappear.

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File URL: http://www1.vwa.unisg.ch/RePEc/usg/dp2007/DP-08-Le.pdf
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Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen in its series University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2007 with number 2007-08.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:usg:dp2007:2007-08
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  1. Hujer, Reinhard & Thomsen, Stephan L. & Zeiss, Christopher, 2004. "The Effects of Vocational Training Programmes on the Duration of Unemployment in Eastern Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1117, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Joffe, Marshall M. & Ten Have, Thomas R. & Feldman, Harold I. & Kimmel, Stephen E., 2004. "Model Selection, Confounder Control, and Marginal Structural Models: Review and New Applications," The American Statistician, American Statistical Association, vol. 58, pages 272-279, November.
  3. Annette BERGEMANN & Gerard J. VAN DEN BERG, 2008. "Active Labor Market Policy Effects for Women in Europe – A Survey," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 91-92, pages 385-408.
  4. Michael Lechner & Conny Wunsch, 2006. "Active Labour Market Policy in East Germany: Waiting for the Economy to Take Off," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2006 2006-24, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
  5. Caliendo, Marco & Hujer, Reinhard & Thomsen, Stephan L., 2005. "Identifying Effect Heterogeneity to Improve the Effiency of Job Creation Schemes in Germany?," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-21, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  6. Kluve, Jochen & Lehmann, Hartmut & Schmidt, Christoph M, 1999. "Active Labour Market Policies in Poland: Human Capital Enhancement, Stigmatization or Benefit Churning?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2059, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
  8. Gerfin, Michael & Lechner, Michael & Steiger, Heidi, 2002. "Does Subsidised Temporary Employment Get the Unemployed Back to Work? An Econometric Analysis of Two Different Schemes," IZA Discussion Papers 606, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Weber, Andrea & Hofer, Helmut, 2004. "Are Job Search Programs a Promising Tool? A Microeconometric Evaluation for Austria," IZA Discussion Papers 1075, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Lechner, Michael & Miquel, Ruth & Wunsch, Conny, 2005. "Long-run effects of public sector sponsored training in West Germany," IAB Discussion Paper 200503, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  11. Forslund, Anders & Johansson, Per & Lindqvist, Linus, 2004. "Employment subsidies - A fast lane from unemployment to work?," Working Paper Series 2004:18, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  12. Michael Gerfin & Michael Lechner, 2002. "A Microeconometric Evaluation of the Active Labour Market Policy in Switzerland," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(482), pages 854-893, October.
  13. Lechner, Michael & Wunsch, Conny, 2007. "What Did All the Money Do? On the General Ineffectiveness of Recent West German Labour Market Programmes," CEPR Discussion Papers 6306, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Daniel Friedlander & David H. Greenberg & Philip K. Robins, 1997. "Evaluating Government Training Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(4), pages 1809-1855, December.
  15. Lechner, Michael & Miquel, Ruth & Wunsch, Conny, 2005. "The curse and blessing of training the unemployed in a changing economy : the case of East Germany after unification," IAB Discussion Paper 200514, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  16. Zweimuller, Josef & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 1996. "Manpower Training Programmes and Employment Stability," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(249), pages 113-30, February.
  17. Heckman, James J. & Lalonde, Robert J. & Smith, Jeffrey A., 1999. "The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1865-2097 Elsevier.
  18. Rafael Lalive & Jan C. van Ours & Josef Zweimueller, . "The Impact of Active Labor Market Programs on the Duration of Unemployment," IEW - Working Papers 041, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  19. Hujer, Reinhard & Caliendo, Marco & Thomsen, Stephan L., 2003. "New Evidence on the Effects of Job Creation Schemes in Germany - A Matching Approach with Threefold Heterogeneity," IZA Discussion Papers 750, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. van Ours, Jan C, 2002. "The Locking-in Effect of Subsidized Jobs," CEPR Discussion Papers 3489, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  21. van Ours, J.C., 2004. "The locking-in effect of subsidized jobs," Other publications TiSEM c4fd99a1-4c2f-46c6-9ee2-3, School of Economics and Management.
  22. Guido W. Imbens, 2003. "Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects under Exogeneity: A Review," NBER Technical Working Papers 0294, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Marco Caliendo & Reinhard Hujer & Stephan L. Thomsen, 2006. "Sectoral Heterogeneity in the Employment Effects of Job Creation Schemes in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 226(2), pages 139-179, March.
  24. Weber, Andrea & Hofer, Helmut, 2004. "Employment Effects of Early Interventions on Job Search Programs," IZA Discussion Papers 1076, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  25. J. Kluve & H. Lehmann & C. M. Schmidt, 2007. "Disentangling Treatment Effects of Active Labor Market Policies: The Role of Labor Force Status Sequences," Working Papers 620, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  26. Lechner, Michael, 1999. "Earnings and Employment Effects of Continuous Off-the-Job Training in East Germany after Unification," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(1), pages 74-90, January.
  27. Carling, Kenneth & Richardson, Katarina, 2004. "The relative efficiency of labor market programs: Swedish experience from the 1990s," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 335-354, June.
  28. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-140882 is not listed on IDEAS
  29. Michael Lechner & Conny Wunsch, 2009. "Active labour market policy in East Germany," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(4), pages 661-702, October.
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