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Job Creation and Job Destruction in Estonia: Labour Reallocation and Structural Changes

  • Masso, Jaan


    (University of Tartu)

  • Eamets, Raul


    (University of Tartu)

  • Philips, Kaia


    (University of Tartu)

This article documents and analyses gross job flows and their determinants in Estonia over the years 1995-2001, using a database containing the population of officially registered firms in Estonia (all in all 52,000). Our results show that job creation and job destruction rates have been rather high in Estonia and are comparable to the levels documented for the US. We find that the firm-specific component in job flows excess of employment change had relatively lower importance than in western studies due to the emergence of small and medium-sized enterprises and labour reallocation between the economic sectors. The high inter-sectoral mobility has helped maintain high levels of job flows, while both are high also due to a favourable institutional environment, especially due to low start-up costs and a large share of micro enterprises in Estonia. When investigating job creation and destruction at the firm level by estimating firms' growth equations, we detected a negative effect of their size and age on the growth of firms, especially of domestic firms. The job flows have not decreased recently, although worker flows have dropped. One explanation is provided by labour market institutional framework, while the other one relates to the concept of churning flows (the difference between worker and job flows).

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1707.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2005
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: H. Hannula, S. Radoševic and N. von Tunzelmann (eds.) , Estonia, the New EU Economy, Building a Baltic Miracle. Ashgate Publishing, 2006, pp. 105-142
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1707
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  1. Alessandro Acquisti & Hartmut Lehmann, 2000. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Russian Federation," Trinity Economics Papers 20001, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  2. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 2000. "Job Flows, Worker Flows, and Churning," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(3), pages 473-502, July.
  3. Campos, Nauro F. & Aurelijus Dabusinskas, 2002. "So Many Rocket Scientists, So Few Marketing Clerks: Occupational Mobility in Times of Rapid Technological Change," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 38, Royal Economic Society.
  4. Raul Eamets & Urmas Varblane & Kaja Sostra, 2003. "External Macroeconomic Shocks and the Estonian economy: How did the Russian Financial Crisis affect Estonian Unemployment and Foreign Trade?," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 3(2), pages 5-24, July.
  5. John T. Addison & Paulino Teixeira, 2003. "The Economics of Employment Protection," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 24(1), pages 85-129, January.
  6. Caballero, Ricardo J. & Hammour, Mohamad L., 1996. "On the ills of adjustment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 161-192, October.
  7. Timothy Dunne & John Haltiwanger & John Baldwin, 1994. "A Comparison of Job Creation and Job Destruction in Canada and the United States," Working Papers 94-2, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  8. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1991. "Growth and Unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 577, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. repec:oup:qjecon:v:107:y:1992:i:3:p:819-63 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, June.
  11. Davis, Steven J. & Haltiwanger, John, 1999. "Gross job flows," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 41, pages 2711-2805 Elsevier.
  12. Sanghoon Ahn, 2001. "Firm Dynamics and Productivity Growth: A Review of Micro Evidence from OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 297, OECD Publishing.
  13. Swati Basu & Saul Estrin & Jan Svejnar, 1997. "Employment and wage behaviour of industrial enterprises in transition economies: The cases of Poland and Czechoslovakia," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 5(2), pages 271-287, November.
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