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Legal Status and Deprivation in India's Urban Slums: An Analysis of Two Decades of National Sample Survey Data

Author

Listed:
  • Nolan, Laura B.

    () (Mathematica Policy Research)

  • Bloom, David E.

    () (Harvard University)

  • Subbaraman, Ramnath

    () (Harvard Medical School)

Abstract

In India, 52–98 million people live in urban slums, and 59% of slums are "non-notified" or lack legal recognition by the government. In this paper, we use data on 2,901 slums from four waves of the National Sample Survey (NSS) spanning almost 20 years to test the hypothesis that non-notified status is associated with greater deprivation in access to basic services, thereby increasing vulnerability to poor health outcomes. To quantify deprivation for each slum, we construct a basic services deprivation score (BSDS), which includes variables that affect health, such as access to piped water, latrines, solid waste disposal, schools, and health centers. In a regression analysis, we find a robust association between non-notified status and greater deprivation after controlling for other variables. Our analysis reveals a progressive reduction in deprivation the longer a slum has been notified. In addition, data from the 2012 NSS show that, despite suffering from greater deprivation, non-notified slums were much less likely to receive financial aid from government slum improvement schemes. Our findings suggest that legally recognizing non-notified slums and targeting government aid to these settlements may be crucial for improving health outcomes and diminishing urban disparities.

Suggested Citation

  • Nolan, Laura B. & Bloom, David E. & Subbaraman, Ramnath, 2017. "Legal Status and Deprivation in India's Urban Slums: An Analysis of Two Decades of National Sample Survey Data," IZA Discussion Papers 10639, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10639
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gandelman, Néstor, 2010. "Property rights and chronic diseases: Evidence from a natural experiment in Montevideo, Uruguay 1990-2006," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 159-167, July.
    2. Benjamin Marx & Thomas Stoker & Tavneet Suri, 2013. "The Economics of Slums in the Developing World," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 27(4), pages 187-210, Fall.
    3. Erica Field, 2005. "Property Rights and Investment in Urban Slums," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 279-290, 04/05.
    4. Field, Erica Marie, 2005. "Property Rights and Investment in Urban Slums," Scholarly Articles 3634150, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    5. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-142, March.
    6. Jamie Bartram & Sandy Cairncross, 2010. "Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: Forgotten Foundations of Health," Working Papers id:3325, eSocialSciences.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    slums; legal status; notified; deprivation; basic services; health; water; sanitation; India;

    JEL classification:

    • I14 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Inequality
    • I15 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Economic Development
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • I19 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Other

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