IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Equality of opportunities for young Italian workers


  • Francesco Scervini

    (Università di Pavia)

  • Agnese Peruzzi


  • Enrica Chiappero

    (Università di Pavia)


The duality of the labour market in Italy is a dramatic social and economic issue. Not only the youth unemployment rate is one of the highest in Europe (39.7% in 2014), but also the quality of job contracts is very low for young, compared to elder cohorts. Moreover, Italy is perceived as a low-mobility country, where individual outcomes depend signi cantly on initial conditions and parental background. This paper exploits the heterogeneity of job contracts to investigate whether and how circumstances beyond individual control affect the labour market outcomes of young labour force, not only as the probability of employment, but also as the type of job contract achieved. Results confirm that the role of predetermined conditions is very strong, in particular gender and the region of origin, but also parental labour status. The relative effects and significances of circumstances changed their magnitude over time.

Suggested Citation

  • Francesco Scervini & Agnese Peruzzi & Enrica Chiappero, 2016. "Equality of opportunities for young Italian workers," Working papers 38, Società Italiana di Economia Pubblica.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipu:wpaper:38

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Daniele Checchi & Luca Flabbi, 2013. "Intergenerational Mobility and Schooling Decisions in Germany and Italy: The Impact of Secondary School Tracks," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, issue 3, pages 7-57, July-Sept.
    2. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2014. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 210-246.
    3. Andrea Ichino & Fabrizia Mealli & Tommaso Nannicini, 2008. "From temporary help jobs to permanent employment: what can we learn from matching estimators and their sensitivity?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(3), pages 305-327.
    4. Maia Güell & José V. Rodríguez Mora & Christopher I. Telmer, 2015. "The Informational Content of Surnames, the Evolution of Intergenerational Mobility, and Assortative Mating," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(2), pages 693-735.
    5. Daniele Checchi & Vito Peragine, 2010. "Inequality of opportunity in Italy," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 8(4), pages 429-450, December.
    6. Marc Fleurbaey & Vito Peragine, 2013. "Ex Ante Versus Ex Post Equality of Opportunity," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 80(317), pages 118-130, January.
    7. Nolan, Brian & Salverda, Wiemer & Checchi, Daniele & Marx, Ive & McKnight, Abigail & Toth, Istvan Gy (ed.), 2014. "Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries: Thirty Countries' Experiences," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199687428, November.
    8. Achille Lemmi & Gianni Betti (ed.), 2006. "Fuzzy Set Approach to Multidimensional Poverty Measurement," Economic Studies in Inequality, Social Exclusion, and Well-Being, Springer, number 978-0-387-34251-1, December.
    9. Tito Boeri & Pietro Garibaldi, 2007. "Two Tier Reforms of Employment Protection: a Honeymoon Effect?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(521), pages 357-385, June.
    10. International Labour Office., 2013. "Global employment trends 2013 : recovering from a second jobs dip [Chinese version]," Global Employment Trends Reports 994853703402676, International Labour Office, Economic and Labour Market Analysis Department.
    11. Alberta Maria Carlotta Spreafico & Agnese Dina Peruzzi & Enrica Chiappero, 2014. "Youth unemployment in the EU15: regional and national inequalities throughout the 2008 economic crisis," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 3(3), pages 177-190.
    12. Giovanni S.F. Bruno & Misbah T. Choudhry & Enrico Marelli & Marcello Signorelli, 2014. "Youth Unemployment: Key Determinants and the Impact of Crisis," AIEL Series in Labour Economics, in: Dario Sciulli & Miguel Ángel Malo (ed.), Disadvantaged Workers, edition 1, chapter 7, pages 121-148, AIEL - Associazione Italiana Economisti del Lavoro.
    13. Woessmann, Ludger, 2004. "How Equal Are Educational Opportunities? Family Background and Student Achievement in Europe and the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 1284, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, April.
    15. Lefranc, Arnaud & Pistolesi, Nicolas & Trannoy, Alain, 2009. "Equality of opportunity and luck: Definitions and testable conditions, with an application to income in France," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1189-1207, December.
    16. Mr. Rodolphe Blavy & Angana Banerji & Ms. Huidan Huidan Lin & Mr. Sergejs Saksonovs, 2014. "Youth Unemployment in Advanced Economies in Europe: Searching for Solutions," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 2014/011, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Jo Blanden, 2013. "Cross-Country Rankings In Intergenerational Mobility: A Comparison Of Approaches From Economics And Sociology," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(1), pages 38-73, February.
    18. Blanden, Jo, 2013. "Cross-national rankings of intergenerational mobility: a comparison of approaches from economics and sociology," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 59310, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    19. Jason Heyes, 2011. "Flexicurity, employment protection and the jobs crisis," Work, Employment & Society, British Sociological Association, vol. 25(4), pages 642-657, December.
    20. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    21. Stefano Scarpetta & Anne Sonnet & Thomas Manfredi, 2010. "Rising Youth Unemployment During The Crisis: How to Prevent Negative Long-term Consequences on a Generation?," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 106, OECD Publishing.
    22. Michele Pellizzari, 2010. "Do Friends and Relatives Really Help in Getting a Good Job?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 63(3), pages 494-510, April.
    23. International Labour Office., 2013. "Global employment trends 2013 : recovering from a second jobs dip," Global Employment Trends Reports 994792413402676, International Labour Office, Economic and Labour Market Analysis Department.
    24. Angana Banerji & Sergejs Saksonovs & Huidan Huidan Lin & Rodolphe Blavy, 2014. "Youth Unemployment in Advanced Economies in Europe; Searching for Solutions," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 14/11, International Monetary Fund.
    25. Cameron,A. Colin & Trivedi,Pravin K., 2008. "Microeconometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9787111235767, January.
    26. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling and Earnings," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 41-63, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    27. Giuseppe Pignataro, 2012. "Equality Of Opportunity: Policy And Measurement Paradigms," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(5), pages 800-834, December.
    28. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2014. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 210-246.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Enrica Chiappero-Martinetti, 2016. "The Space of Inequalities," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 440-446, July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Kovacic, Matija & Orso, Cristina Elisa, 2022. "Trends in inequality of opportunity in health over the life cycle: The role of early-life conditions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 201(C), pages 60-82.
    2. Sarmiento Espinel, Jaime Andrés & Silva Arias, Adriana Carolina & van Gameren, Edwin, 2019. "Evolution of the inequality of educational opportunities from secondary education to university," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 193-202.
    3. Juan Javier Santos Ochoa, 2016. "Desigualdad de oportunidad en educación e ingresos laborales en México," Graduate theses (Spanish) TESG 004, CIDE, División de Economía.
    4. Gabriella Berloffa & Francesca Modena & Paola Villa, 2014. "Changing Labour Market Opportunities for Young People in Italy and the Role of the Family of Origin," Rivista italiana degli economisti, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 227-252.
    5. Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Peragine, Vito, 2015. "Equality of Opportunity: Theory and Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 8994, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Natalia Kruger & Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio Waltenberg, 2014. "Gross Inequality and Inequality of Opportunities in Basic Education: Were they affected by Latin America’s Economic Boom?," Documentos de Trabajo 012322, Universidad del Rosario.
    7. Floreani, Vincent Arthur, 2014. "Fixing Europe's youth unemployment and skills mismatch, can public financial support to SMEs be effective? The case of the European Commission and European Investment Bank joint initiatives," MPRA Paper 55849, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Vito Peragine & Flaviana Palmisano & Paolo Brunori, 2014. "Economic Growth and Equality of Opportunity," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 247-281.
    9. Huynh, Phu. & Kapsos, Steven., 2013. "Economic class and labour market inclusion poor and middle class workers in developing Asia and the Pacific," ILO Working Papers 994822963402676, International Labour Organization.
    10. Márcia de Carvalho & Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio D. Waltenberg, 2012. "Equality of educational opportunity employing PISA data: taking both achievement and access into account," Documentos de Trabajo 010239, Universidad del Rosario.
    11. Watson, Barry & Kong, Nancy & Phipps, Shelley, 2022. "Dreaming of a Brighter Future? The Impact of Economic Vulnerability on University Aspirations," IZA Discussion Papers 15539, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    12. Dirk Van de gaer & Xavier Ramos, 2020. "Measurement of inequality of opportunity based on counterfactuals," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 55(3), pages 595-627, October.
    13. Reynaldo Mauricio Rodríguez Amaya, 2018. "Factors Associated with Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Street Vendors in the Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga, Colombia," Global Journal of Health Science, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 10(9), pages 103-103, September.
    14. Jo Blanden & Matthias Doepke & Jan Stuhler, 2022. "Education inequality," CEP Discussion Papers dp1849, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    15. X. Ramos & D. Van De Gaer, 2012. "Empirical Approaches to Inequality of Opportunity: Principles, Measures, and Evidence," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 12/792, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    16. José María Rentería, 2019. "Inequality of educational opportunity and time-varying circumstances: Longitudinal evidence from Peru," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 19025, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    17. Juan C. Palomino & Gustavo A. Marrero & Juan G. Rodríguez, 2019. "Channels of Inequality of Opportunity: The Role of Education and Occupation in Europe," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 143(3), pages 1045-1074, June.
    18. Tansel, Aysit, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time," IZA Discussion Papers 9005, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. repec:ilo:ilowps:482296 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Guido Neidhöfer & Leonardo Gasparini & Matias Ciaschi, "undated". "Intergenerational mobility of economic well-being in Latin America," Working Papers 620, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    21. Flaviana Palmisano & Vito Peragine & Federico Biagi, 2019. "Inequality of opportunity in tertiary education in Europe," JRC Research Reports JRC118543, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).

    More about this item


    Intergenerational equality of opportunity; Labour market; Job contracts; Inequality.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ipu:wpaper:38. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Monica Bozzano (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.