IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Developing Computational Thinking in Compulsory Education - Implications for policy and practice



    (Institute for Educational Technology, CNR (Italy))


    (Institute for Educational Technology, CNR (Italy))


    (Institute for Educational Technology, CNR (Italy))


    (European Schoolnet)


    (European Schoolnet)


In the past decade, Computational Thinking (CT) and related concepts (e.g. coding, programing, algorithmic thinking) have received increasing attention in the educational field. This has given rise to a large amount of academic and grey literature, and also numerous public and private implementation initiatives. Despite this widespread interest, successful CT integration in compulsory education still faces unresolved issues and challenges. This report provides a comprehensive overview of CT skills for schoolchildren, encompassing recent research findings and initiatives at grassroots and policy levels. It also offers a better understanding of the core concepts and attributes of CT and its potential for compulsory education. The study adopts a mostly qualitative approach that comprises extensive desk research, a survey of Ministries of Education and semi-structured interviews, which provide insights from experts, practitioners and policy makers. The report discusses the most significant CT developments for compulsory education in Europe and provides a comprehensive synthesis of evidence, including implications for policy and practice.

Suggested Citation

  • Stefania Bocconi & Augusto Chioccariello & Giuliana Dettori & Anusca Ferrari & Katja Engelhardt, 2016. "Developing Computational Thinking in Compulsory Education - Implications for policy and practice," JRC Research Reports JRC104188, Joint Research Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipt:iptwpa:jrc104188

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Tsang, Eric W. K., 2014. "Old and New," Management and Organization Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(03), pages 390-390, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Michal Fojtík & Martin Cápay & Janka Medová & Ľubomíra Valovičová, 2023. "Activities with BBC micro:bit as a Foundation for Statistical Reasoning of Lower-Secondary Students," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 11(14), pages 1-16, July.
    2. Yen-Cheng Chen & Pei-Ling Tsui & Ching-Sung Lee, 2021. "Is Mathematics Required for Cooking? An Interdisciplinary Approach to Integrating Computational Thinking in a Culinary and Restaurant Management Course," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 9(18), pages 1-16, September.
    3. World Bank, 2019. "Children Learning to Code," World Bank Publications - Reports 31528, The World Bank Group.
    4. Margarida Rodrigues & Federico Biagi, 2017. "Digital technologies and learning outcomes of students from low socio-economic background: An Analysis of PISA 2015," JRC Research Reports JRC106999, Joint Research Centre.
    5. Gregor Milicic & Sina Wetzel & Matthias Ludwig, 2020. "Generic Tasks for Algorithms," Future Internet, MDPI, vol. 12(9), pages 1-16, September.
    6. Ramón García-Perales & Ascensión Palomares-Ruiz, 2020. "Education in Programming and Mathematical Learning: Functionality of a Programming Language in Educational Processes," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(23), pages 1-15, December.
    7. Ľubomíra Valovičová & Ján Ondruška & Ľubomír Zelenický & Vlastimil Chytrý & Janka Medová, 2020. "Enhancing Computational Thinking through Interdisciplinary STEAM Activities Using Tablets," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 8(12), pages 1-15, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ali Shalizar Jalali, 2018. "Male Fertility as a Bull’s Eye for Mastocytosis," Global Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Juniper Publishers Inc., vol. 3(3), pages 58-60, February.
    2. Hui Yan & Guixiang Liu, 2021. "Fire’s Effects on Grassland Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(21), pages 1-15, October.
    3. Michal Plaček & Martin Schmidt & František Ochrana & Michal Půček, 2017. "Do the Selected Characteristics of Public Tenders Affect the Likelihood of Filing Petitions with the Regulators of Public Tenders?," Prague Economic Papers, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 2017(3), pages 317-329.
    4. Nikolov, Plamen & Adelman, Alan, 2019. "Do private household transfers to the elderly respond to public pension benefits? Evidence from rural China," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 14(C).
    5. Dana Benešová & Viera Kubičková & Miroslava Prváková, 2020. "Open innovation model in the knowledge intensive business services in the Slovak Republic," Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, VsI Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, vol. 8(2), pages 1340-1358, December.
    6. Holzmann, Robert & Alonso-García, Jennifer & Labit-Hardy, Heloise & Villegas, Andres M., 2017. "NDC Schemes and Heterogeneity in Longevity: Proposals for Redesign," IZA Discussion Papers 11193, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Selman, P., 2014. "Intercountry Adoption Agencies and the HCIA," ISS Working Papers - General Series 77404, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
    8. Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues, 2019. "Historical records of wine: Highlighting the old wine world," EconStor Preprints 193461, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    9. Gabriella Garbarino & Giovanni Pampararo & Thanh Khoa Phung & Paola Riani & Guido Busca, 2020. "Heterogeneous Catalysis in (Bio)Ethanol Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels: Thermodynamics, Catalysis, Reaction Paths, Mechanisms and Product Selectivities," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(14), pages 1-19, July.
    10. Zhongcheng Yan & Feng Wei & Xin Deng & Chuan Li & Qiang He & Yanbin Qi, 2022. "Feminization of Agriculture: Do Female Farmers Have Higher Expectations for the Value of Their Farmland?—Empirical Evidence from China," Agriculture, MDPI, vol. 12(1), pages 1-22, January.
    11. Hélène Laurell & Leona Achtenhagen & Svante Andersson, 2017. "The changing role of network ties and critical capabilities in an international new venture’s early development," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 113-140, March.
    12. Trine Filges & Anu Siren & Torben Fridberg & Bjørn C. V. Nielsen, 2020. "Voluntary work for the physical and mental health of older volunteers: A systematic review," Campbell Systematic Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 16(4), December.
    13. Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor & Walid Hamma & Huu Duy Nguyen & Giovanni Randazzo & Anselme Muzirafuti & Mari-Isabella Stan & Van Truong Tran & Roxana Aştefănoaiei & Quang-Thanh Bui & Dragoş-Florian Vintilă, 2020. "Degradation of Coastlines under the Pressure of Urbanization and Tourism: Evidence on the Change of Land Systems from Europe, Asia and Africa," Land, MDPI, vol. 9(8), pages 1-43, August.
    14. repec:ers:journl:v:special_issue:y:2018:i:1:p:466-478 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Sellami Sana & Verhaest Dieter & Nonneman Walter & Van Trier Walter, 2017. "The Impact of Educational Mismatches on Wages: The Influence of Measurement Error and Unobserved Heterogeneity," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 17(1), pages 1-20, February.
    16. Xavier Gabaix & Jean‐Michel Lasry & Pierre‐Louis Lions & Benjamin Moll, 2016. "The Dynamics of Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 84, pages 2071-2111, November.
    17. Kenneth M. Johnson & Daniel T. Lichter, 2016. "Diverging Demography: Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Contributions to U.S. Population Redistribution and Diversity," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 35(5), pages 705-725, October.
    18. Su, Guifu & Tu, Jianhua & Das, Kinkar Ch., 2015. "Graphs with fixed number of pendent vertices and minimal Zeroth-order general Randić index," Applied Mathematics and Computation, Elsevier, vol. 270(C), pages 705-710.
    19. Zbigniew Drewniak & Rafal Drewniak & Robert Karaszewski, 2020. "The Assessment of the Features of Inter-organisational Relationships: Benefits, Duration, Repeatability and Maturity of the Relationship with the Company's Stakeholders," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(Special 1), pages 443-461.
    20. Tanja Lepistö & Tiina Mäkitalo-Keinonen & Tiina Valjakka, 0. "Opportunity recognition in a hub-governed network – insights from garage services," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-24.
    21. Markus Mykk�nen & Neil Freshwater, 2021. "Typology of think tanks: A comparative study in Finland and Scotland," Academicus International Scientific Journal, Entrepreneurship Training Center Albania, issue 23, pages 72-90, January.

    More about this item


    Computational Thinking; Coding; Programming; Algorithmic Thinking; 21st century skills; Innovation in Education; education policy; compulsory education; learning innovation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • I29 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Other

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ipt:iptwpa:jrc104188. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Publication Officer (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.