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Coal and the European Industrial Revolution

  • Alan Fernihough


    (Institute for International Integration Studies, Trinity College Dublin)

  • Kevin Hjortshøj O'Rourke


    (All Souls College, Oxford)

We examine the importance of geographical proximity to coal as a factor underpinning comparative European economic development during the Industrial Revolution. Our analysis exploits geographical variation in city and coalfield locations, alongside temporal variation in the availability of coal-powered technologies, to quantify the effect of coal availability on historic city population sizes. Since we suspect that our coal measure could be endogenous, we use a geologically derived measure as an instrumental variable: proximity to rock strata from the Carboniferous era. Consistent with traditional historical accounts of the Industrial Revolution, we find that coal exhibits a strong influence on city population size from 1800 onward. Counterfactual estimates of city population sizes indicate that our estimated coal effect explains at least 60% of the growth in European city populations from 1750 to 1900. This result is robust to a number of alternative modelling assumptions regarding missing historical population data, spatially lagged effects, and the exclusion of the United Kingdom from the estimation sample.

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Paper provided by IIIS in its series The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series with number iiisdp439.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2014
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iis:dispap:iiisdp439
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