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Identifying Industry Margins with Unobserved Price Constraints: Structural Estimation on Pharmaceuticals

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  • Dubois, Pierre
  • Lasio, Laura

Abstract

We provide a method allowing identification of margins in an oligopoly price competition game when prices may not be freely chosen in some markets, for example due to regulation. We use our identification strategy to study the effects of regulatory constraints in the pharmaceutical industry. We provide the first structural estimation of price-cost margins on a regulated market with price constraints and show how to identify unknown possibly binding constraints thanks to three different markets (US, Germany and France) with varying regulatory constraints. We use the market for anti-ulcer drugs to identify whether regulation in France truly affects margins and prices and relate regulatory reforms to industry pricing equilibrium. Empirical results show that firms were especially constrained in price setting after the different reforms in 2004. Counterfactual simulations show that total spending significantly increased because of the new price regulation by displacing part of the demand from generics to branded drugs.

Suggested Citation

  • Dubois, Pierre & Lasio, Laura, 2014. "Identifying Industry Margins with Unobserved Price Constraints: Structural Estimation on Pharmaceuticals," IDEI Working Papers 823, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  • Handle: RePEc:ide:wpaper:27918
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    1. Reynaert, Mathias & Verboven, Frank, 2014. "Improving the performance of random coefficients demand models: The role of optimal instruments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 179(1), pages 83-98.
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    Cited by:

    1. Reynaert, Mathias & Verboven, Frank, 2014. "Improving the performance of random coefficients demand models: The role of optimal instruments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 179(1), pages 83-98.
    2. Pierre Dubois & Morten Sæthre, 2020. "On the Effect of Parallel Trade on Manufacturers' and Retailers' Profits in the Pharmaceutical Sector," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 88(6), pages 2503-2545, November.
    3. Castanheira, Micael & Ornaghi, Carmine & Siotis, Georges, 2019. "The unexpected consequences of generic entry," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    4. Philippe Choné & Lionel Wilner, 2015. "Complementarity or substitutability in networks? Methodology and application to the hospital industry," Working Papers 2015-07, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    5. Susan J. Méndez, 2018. "Parallel trade of pharmaceuticals: The Danish market for statins," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(2), pages 333-356, February.
    6. Kaiser, Ulrich & Mendez, Susan J. & Rønde, Thomas & Ullrich, Hannes, 2014. "Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: Evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 174-187.
    7. Atal, Juan Pablo & Cuesta, José Ignacio & Sæthre, Morten, 2018. "Quality Regulation and Competition: Evidence from Pharmaceutical Markets," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 20/2018, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.
    8. Xavier D’Haultfœuille & Isis Durrmeyer & Philippe Février, 2019. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium with Unobserved Price Discrimination," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 86(5), pages 1973-1998.
    9. Pierre Dubois & Ashvin Gandhi & Shoshana Vasserman, 2022. "Bargaining and International Reference Pricing in the Pharmaceutical Industry," NBER Working Papers 30053, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Suppliet, Moritz, 2020. "Umbrella branding in pharmaceutical markets," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    11. Arcidiacono, Peter & Ellickson, Paul B. & Landry, Peter & Ridley, David B., 2013. "Pharmaceutical followers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 538-553.
    12. Callejas, Jerónimo & Mohapatra, Debi Prasad, 2021. "Welfare effects of public procurement of medicines: Evidence from Ecuador," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    13. Philippe Choné & Lionel Wilner, 2015. "Complementarity or substitutability in networks? Methodology and application to the hospital industry," Working Papers 2015-07, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    14. Vasudha Wattal, 2022. "Pricing of new pharmaceuticals and price regulation in India," Working Paper series, University of East Anglia, Centre for Competition Policy (CCP) 2022-02, Centre for Competition Policy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK..
    15. Jiekai ZHANG, 2016. "The impact of advertising length caps on TV: Evidence from the French broadcast TV industry," Working Papers 16-06, NET Institute.
    16. repec:iae:iaewps:wp2016n8 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Robert Clark & Christopher Anthony Fabiilli & Laura Lasio, 2021. "Collusion in the US Generic Drug Industry," Working Paper 1474, Economics Department, Queen's University.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    empirical IO; price constraints; Bertrand competition; regulation; pharmaceuticals; antiulcer drugs;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General

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