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La sociedad gana o pierde como resultado de la privatizacion? El caso de Colombia

  • Mauricio Olivera
  • Felipe Barrera

Este trabajo estudia los efectos de la privatización del sector de agua en el bienestar de los consumidores en 46 municipalidades de Colombia. En primer lugar se describe el proceso de privatización. En segundo lugar, el estudio evalúa el impacto de la privatización en el acceso, precio y calidad del agua al igual que los resultados de salud usando metodología de diferencia en diferencias con variación de tiempo (antes y después de la privatización) entre tratamientos y grupos de control (municipalidades privatizadas y no privatizadas)y el control de las características de la familia y de la municipalidad. Los resultados muestran efectos positivos de la privatización, en particular en las áreas urbanas. Hay cuatro resultados importantes: (i) La privatización en las áreas urbanas aumenta el acceso, tiene efectos positivos en la medición de calidad como en la necesidad de tratamiento y el aspecto del agua (i. e. presencia de partículas), y mejora los resultados de salud, como también mejorar la frecuencia del servicio para los bajos quintiles. (ii) La privatización aumenta el precio del agua en los bajos quintiles, aunque estos efectos pueden ser el resultado de la implementación conjunta de privatización y eliminación de subsidios cruzados (iii) En las municipalidades privatizadas con mejores capacidades técnicas gubernamentales hay efectos positivos en el acceso, precios y calidad. (iv) los efectos positivos de la privatización en áreas rurales en la frecuencia del servicio y en los resultados de salud están dominados por el impacto negativo en el acceso y precios. Estos resultados sugieren que los beneficios que se encuentran en las áreas urbanas deben expandirse a las áreas rurales, y que el servicio se debe enfocar más hacia los más pobres.

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Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3231.

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Date of creation: Mar 2007
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3231
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  1. Sebastian Galiani & Paul Gertler & Ernesto Schargrodsky, 2002. "Water for Life: The Impact of the Privatization of Water Services on Child Mortality," Working Papers 54, Universidad de San Andres, Departamento de Economia, revised Sep 2005.
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  3. Albert Chong & Florencio López-de-Silanes, 2004. "Privatization in Latin America: What Does the Evidence Say?," JOURNAL OF LACEA ECONOMIA, LACEA - LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION.
  4. AndrÈs GÛmez-Lobo & Dante Contreras, 2003. "Water Subsidy Policies: A Comparison of the Chilean and Colombian Schemes," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(3), pages 391-407, December.
  5. Héctor Ochoa Díaz & Jaime Andrés Collazos Rodríguez, 2004. "La evaluación del desempeño de las empresas privatizadas en Colombia: ¿Coincide con la experiencia internacional?," ESTUDIOS GERENCIALES, UNIVERSIDAD ICESI.
  6. Alberto E. Chong & Florencio López-de-Silanes, 2004. "Privatization in Mexico," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6682, Inter-American Development Bank.
  7. George R.G. Clarke & Katrina Kosec & Scott Wallsten, 2009. "Has private participation in water and sewerage improved coverage? Empirical evidence from Latin America," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(3), pages 327-361.
  8. Blank, Rebecca M, 2000. "When Can Public Policy Makers Rely on Private Markets? The Effective Provision of Social Services," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C34-49, March.
  9. Carlos Pombo & Manuel Ramírez, 2003. "Privatization in Colombia: A Plant Performance Analysis," Research Department Publications 3151, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  10. Alberto Chong & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, 2004. "Privatización en México," Research Department Publications 4374, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  11. Juan Camilo Chaparro & Michael Smart & Juan Gonzola Zapata, 2004. "Intergovernmental Transfers and Municipal Finance in Colombia," International Tax Program Papers 0403, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
  12. Heckman, James J. & Lalonde, Robert J. & Smith, Jeffrey A., 1999. "The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1865-2097 Elsevier.
  13. Bird, Richard M. & Smart, Michael, 2002. "Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers: International Lessons for Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 899-912, June.
  14. Fiszbein, Ariel, 1997. "The Emergence of local capacity: Lessons from Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1029-1043, July.
  15. Marcela Meléndez & Andrés Gómez-Lobo Echeñique, 2007. "Social Policy, Regulation and Private Sector water supply: the case of Colombia," Working Papers wp252, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
  16. Rama,Martin G., 1997. "Efficient public sector downsizing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1840, The World Bank.
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