Geographical Exclusion in Rural Areas of El Salvador: Its Impact on Labor Market Outcomes
The main objective of this study is to examine one aspect of social exclusion, the geographic isolation of individuals living in El Salvador`s rural areas and its impact on three labor market outcomes: labor force participation decision, sector of employment, and labor income. In this study, it is hypothesized that living in geographic isolation has a negative impact on rural workers` labor outcomes, that geographic isolation, through a combination of security hazards, increasing transaction and working costs, depresses individual`s labor force participation rates, increases the likelihood of working in low-productive jobs, and results in lower labor income levels. The main results of this study indicate that the degree of geographic isolation does not discourage men from working; on the contrary, men living farther away from urban and maquila jobs are more likely to work. The degree of geographic isolation determines individuals` sector allocation and their labor income as well. Women living farther away from urban areas or with less access to paved roads are highly concentrated in own-production agricultural activities, where women`s skills are rewarded less than comparable men`s skills. Own production in agriculture is a sector where women`s human capital accumulation does not influence their income labor level, though it does reward men`s skills. Through concentration into this sector, women living in geographic isolation obtain worse labor outcomes than men. Living in geographic isolation decreases women`s labor income. When working in own-account non-agricultural production, geographic isolation also has a negative impact on men`s labor income.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2002|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1300 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20577|
Web page: http://www.iadb.org/res
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser & Jacob L. Vigdor, 1999.
"The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(3), pages 455-506, June.
- David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser & Jacob L. Vigdor, 1997. "The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto," NBER Working Papers 5881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cutler, David & Vigdor, Jacob & Glaeser, Edward, 1999. "The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto," Scholarly Articles 2770033, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Borjas, George J, 1995. "Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human-Capital Externalities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 365-390, June.
- George J. Borjas, 1994. "Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human Capital Externalities," NBER Working Papers 4912, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser, 1997. "Are Ghettos Good or Bad?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 827-872. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3135. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Monica Bazan)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.