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Outsourcing Potentials and International Tradability of Jobs - Evidence from German Micro-Level Data

We analyze the offshorability of jobs using the German Qualifications and Career Survey. The paper differentiates between outsourcing potential and international tradability and systematically uses a large set of potential determinants of organizational and spatial relocation derived from the existing literature on offshoring. Applying principal component analysis, we are able to compute two indicators explaining both the outsourcing potential and the international tradability of an individual employee according to the characteristics of the job performed. The results show that there is significant variation along the two dimensions across tasks, occupations, and industries. We apply our results to analyze the effects of outsourcing potential and international tradability on individual income and find that especially the latter has a negative effect. Moreover, our computed indicators can be used to further investigate the economic effects of offshoring potential.

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File URL: http://www.iaw.edu/RePEc/iaw/pdf/iaw_dp_93.pdf
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Paper provided by Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW) in its series IAW Discussion Papers with number 93.

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Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iaw:iawdip:93
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  1. Arnaud Costinot & Lindsay Oldenski & James Rauch, 2009. "Adaptation and the Boundary of Multinational Firms," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd09-059, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  2. Antras, Pol & Helpman, Elhanan, 2004. "Global Sourcing," Scholarly Articles 3196327, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  3. Gregory Mankiw, N. & Swagel, Phillip, 2006. "The politics and economics of offshore outsourcing," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(5), pages 1027-1056, July.
  4. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 2003. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 9669, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Dirk Antonczyk & Bernd Fitzenberger & Ute Leuschner, 2009. "Can a Task-Based Approach Explain the Recent Changes in the German Wage Structure?," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 229(2-3), pages 214-238, June.
  6. Stefano Federico, 2012. "Headquarter intensity and the choice between outsourcing versus integration at home or abroad," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(6), pages 1337-1358, December.
  7. Becker, Sascha O. & Ekholm, Karolina & Muendler, Marc-Andreas, 2009. "Offshoring and the Onshore Composition of Tasks and Skills," CEPR Discussion Papers 7391, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Hart, Oliver & Moore, John, 1990. "Property Rights and the Nature of the Firm," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(6), pages 1119-58, December.
  9. Antras, Pol, 2003. "Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure," Scholarly Articles 3196328, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  10. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman & Adam Szeidl, 2005. "Complementarities between Outsourcing and Foreign Sourcing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 19-24, May.
  11. Fernando Merino & Diego Rodr�guez Rodr�guez, 2007. "Business services outsourcing by manufacturing firms," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(6), pages 1147-1173, December.
  12. Grossman, Sanford J. & Hart, Oliver D., 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Scholarly Articles 3450060, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  13. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. "The rise of offshoring: it's not wine for cloth anymore," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 59-102.
  14. Edward E. Leamer & Michael Storper, 2001. "The Economic Geography of the Internet Age," NBER Working Papers 8450, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Paola Giuri & Salvatore Torrisi & Natalia Zinovyeva, 2008. "ICT, skills, and organizational change: evidence from Italian manufacturing firms," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(1), pages 29-64, February.
  16. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2008. "Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1978-97, December.
  17. Lindsay Oldenski, 2012. "The Task Composition of Offshoring by U.S. Multinationals," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 131, pages 5-21.
  18. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, August.
  19. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Henry Kaiser, 1958. "The varimax criterion for analytic rotation in factor analysis," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 187-200, September.
  21. Hogrefe, Jan, 2013. "Offshoring and relative labor demand from a task perspective," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-067, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  22. Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 2006. "Technical Change, Job Tasks, and Rising Educational Demands: Looking outside the Wage Structure," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(2), pages 235-270, April.
  23. repec:hrv:faseco:4784029 is not listed on IDEAS
  24. David Autor & Frank Levy & Richard Murnane, 2003. "The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov.
  25. Rainer Lanz & Sébastien Miroudot & Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås, 2011. "Trade in Tasks," OECD Trade Policy Papers 117, OECD Publishing.
  26. David H. Autor & Michael J. Handel, 2013. "Putting Tasks to the Test: Human Capital, Job Tasks, and Wages," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(S1), pages S59 - S96.
  27. Ethier, Wilfred J, 1986. "The Multinational Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(4), pages 805-33, November.
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