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Outsourcing Potentials and International Tradability of Jobs. Evidence from German Micro-Level Data

  • Koch, Andreas
  • Brändle, Tobias

We analyze the offshorability of jobs using the German Qualifications and Career Survey. The paper differentiates between outsourcing potential and international tradability and systematically uses a large set of potential determinants of organizational and spatial relocation derived from the existing literature on offshoring. Applying principal component analysis, we are able to compute two indicators explaining both the outsourcing potential and the international tradability of an individual employee according to the characteristics of the job performed. The results show that there is significant variation along the two dimensions across tasks, occupations, and industries. We apply our results to analyze the effects of outsourcing potential and international tradability on individual income and find that especially the latter has a negative effect. Moreover, our computed indicators can be used to further investigate the economic effects of offshoring potential.

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File URL: http://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/79727/1/VfS_2013_pid_402.pdf
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Paper provided by Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order with number 79727.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79727
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.socialpolitik.org/Email:


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  1. Hart, Oliver D. & Moore, John, 1990. "Property Rights and the Nature of the Firm," Scholarly Articles 3448675, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  2. Fernando Merino & Diego Rodr�guez Rodr�guez, 2007. "Business services outsourcing by manufacturing firms," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(6), pages 1147-1173, December.
  3. Pol Antràs, 2003. "Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure," NBER Working Papers 9740, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Edward E Leamer & Michael Storper, 2001. "The Economic Geography of the Internet Age," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(4), pages 641-665, December.
  5. Arnaud Costinot & Lindsay Oldenski & James Rauch, 2011. "Adaptation and the Boundary of Multinational Firms," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(1), pages 298-308, February.
  6. N. Gregory Mankiw & Phillip Swagel, 2006. "The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2120, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  7. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan Deardorff & Robert Stern, 2004. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," NBER Chapters, in: Challenges to Globalization: Analyzing the Economics, pages 279-330 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Antràs, Pol & Helpman, Elhanan, 2004. "Global Sourcing," CEPR Discussion Papers 4170, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  10. Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2009. "Offshoring and the Onshore Composition of Tasks and Skills," IAW Discussion Papers 55, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  11. Paola Giuri & Salvatore Torrisi & Natalia Zinovyeva, 2008. "ICT, skills, and organizational change: evidence from Italian manufacturing firms," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(1), pages 29-64, February.
  12. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman & Adam Szeidl, 2005. "Complementarities between Outsourcing and Foreign Sourcing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 19-24, May.
  13. Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 2006. "Technical Change, Job Tasks, and Rising Educational Demands: Looking outside the Wage Structure," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(2), pages 235-270, April.
  14. Antonczyk, Dirk & Fitzenberger, Bernd & Leuschner, Ute, 2009. "Can a Task-Based Approach Explain the Recent Changes in the German Wage Structure?," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-132, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  15. Hogrefe, Jan, 2013. "Offshoring and relative labor demand from a task perspective," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-067, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  16. David H. Autor & Frank Levy & Richard J. Murnane, 2001. "The Skill Content of Recent Technological Change: An Empirical Exploration," NBER Working Papers 8337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Oliver Hart & Sanford Grossman, 1985. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Working papers 372, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
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  22. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1.
  23. repec:hrv:faseco:4784029 is not listed on IDEAS
  24. Henry Kaiser, 1958. "The varimax criterion for analytic rotation in factor analysis," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 187-200, September.
  25. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Stefano Federico, 2012. "Headquarter intensity and the choice between outsourcing versus integration at home or abroad," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(6), pages 1337-1358, December.
  27. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. "The rise of offshoring: it's not wine for cloth anymore," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 59-102.
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