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Environmental Standards under International Oligopoly


  • Jota Ishikawa
  • Toshihiro Okubo


We explore the effects of domestic environmental standards when a domestic firm and a foreign rival compete in the domestic market. We focus on a situation where the introduction of environmental standards forces the foreign product out of the domestic market because it does not meet the standards. Such prohibitive standards may induce the foreign firm to produce an environmentally friendly good through R&D or licensing obtained from the domestic firm. However, this does not guarantee that the product, which now complies with the environmental standards, will improve the environment. In the case of licensing, governments may intervene to shift the rent from the domestic firm. In certain circumstances, the shifted rent could exceed the amount paid by the foreign firm for licensing.

Suggested Citation

  • Jota Ishikawa & Toshihiro Okubo, 2010. "Environmental Standards under International Oligopoly," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd10-141, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hst:ghsdps:gd10-141

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jota Ishikawa & Toshihiro Okubo, 2008. "Greenhouse-gas Emission Controls and International Carbon Leakage through Trade Liberalization," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd08-013, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    2. José Moraga-González & Noemi Padrón-Fumero, 2002. "Environmental Policy in a Green Market," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 22(3), pages 419-447, July.
    3. Eiji Horiuchi & Jota Ishikawa, 2009. "Tariffs and Technology Transfer through an Intermediate Product," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(SI), pages 310-326, May.
    4. Chen, Yongmin & Ishikawa, Jota & Yu, Zhihao, 2004. "Trade liberalization and strategic outsourcing," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 419-436, July.
    5. Yi, Sang-Seung, 1999. "Entry, licensing and research joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 1-24, January.
    6. Toshimitsu, Tsuyoshi, 2008. "On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 578-584, December.
    7. Kennedy Peter W., 1994. "Equilibrium Pollution Taxes in Open Economies with Imperfect Competition," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 49-63, July.
    8. Jota Ishikawa & Kazuharu Kiyono, 2006. "Greenhouse-Gas Emission Controls In An Open Economy," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 47(2), pages 431-450, May.
    9. Ulph, Alistair, 1996. "Environmental Policy and International Trade when Governments and Producers Act Strategically," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 265-281, May.
    10. Rauscher, Michael, 2005. "International Trade, Foreign Investment, and the Environment," Handbook of Environmental Economics,in: K. G. Mäler & J. R. Vincent (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 27, pages 1403-1456 Elsevier.
    11. Klaus Conrad, 2001. "Voluntary Environmental Agreements vs. Emission Taxes in Strategic Trade Models," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 19(4), pages 361-381, August.
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    More about this item


    environmental standards; international oligopoly; R&D; licensing; rent-shifting;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment

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