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Agency Conflicts, Financial Distress, and Syndicate Structure: Evidence from Japanese Borrowers


  • Lee, Sang Whi
  • Kwag, Seung-Woog (Austin)
  • Mullineaux, Donald J.
  • Park, Kwangwoo


We examine how borrower firm characteristics affect the size structure in the Japanese syndicated loan market for the 1999-2003 period. Consistent with the view by Lee and Mullineaux (2004), we find that syndicates are smaller when borrowers have higher credit risk, while firms with greater information asymmetry are associated with larger syndicates in Japan. These results are primarily driven by nonkeiretsu (non-business group) firms. This suggests that the role of enhanced monitoring and facilitated renegotiation is especially useful for banks participating in Japanese syndicated loan for non-keiretsu firms. On the other hand, information problems seem to be less severe for keiretsu (business group) firms which tend to have easier access to syndicated loan via the intermediation of in-house banks in the relevant syndicate. Finally, we find that keiretsu (non-keiretsu) firms have less (more) fraction of loan by their agent banks as the maturity rises. It appears that main banks of keiretsu firms with informational advantage are likely to retain less of the loan and form a more dispersed syndicate to "signal' that the loan is of high quality with increased maturity. This further confirms the view that information problems are less severe in the keiretsu firms.

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  • Lee, Sang Whi & Kwag, Seung-Woog (Austin) & Mullineaux, Donald J. & Park, Kwangwoo, 2006. "Agency Conflicts, Financial Distress, and Syndicate Structure: Evidence from Japanese Borrowers," CEI Working Paper Series 2006-11, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hit:hitcei:2006-11
    Note: This Version: October 2006

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Esho, Neil & Lam, Yung & Sharpe, Ian G., 2001. "Choice of Financing Source in International Debt Markets," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 10(3-4), pages 276-305, July.
    2. Arnoud W. A. Boot & Anjan V. Thakor, 2000. "Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 679-713, April.
    3. Amir Sufi, 2007. "Information Asymmetry and Financing Arrangements: Evidence from Syndicated Loans," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 629-668, April.
    4. Bhattacharya Sudipto & Chiesa Gabriella, 1995. "Proprietary Information, Financial Intermediation, and Research Incentives," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 328-357, October.
    5. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
    6. repec:cep:stitep:/1991/233 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
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