IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bootstrap Methods and Applications in Econometrics - A Brief Survey


  • Bergström, Pål

    (Trade and Capital Markets)


This paper provides a brief survey of the bootstrap and its use in econometrics. As an introduction, the paper gives a description of the basics of the method, with a special emphasis on boostrap testing. A fairly large amount of space is devoted to discuss why bootstrap tests provide refinements compared to equivalent asymptotic tests. A series of recent different applications in the econometrics literature is then surveyed, in order to give a picture of this rapidly evolving research field.

Suggested Citation

  • Bergström, Pål, 1999. "Bootstrap Methods and Applications in Econometrics - A Brief Survey," Working Paper Series 1999:2, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:uunewp:1999_002

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Horowitz, J.L., 1996. "Bootstrap Critical Values for Tests Based on the Smoothed Maximum Score Estimator," Working Papers 96-02, University of Iowa, Department of Economics.
    2. J. Horowitz, 1996. "Bootstrap Critical Values For Tests Based On The Smoothed Maximum Score Estimator," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 1996,44, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
    3. Wong, Ka-fu, 1996. "Bootstrapping Hausman's exogeneity test," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 139-143, November.
    4. Bergström, Pål & Lindberg, Sara, 1998. "Firms' Financial Policy and Labour Demand: Theory and Evidence," Working Paper Series 1998:18, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    5. Atkinson, Scott E. & Wilson, Paul W., 1992. "The Bias of Bootstrapped Versus Conventional Standard Errors in the General Linear and SUR Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(02), pages 258-275, June.
    6. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1999. "The Size Distortion Of Bootstrap Tests," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(03), pages 361-376, June.
    7. Bergström, Pål & Dahlberg, Matz & Johansson, Eva, 1997. "GMM Bootstrapping and Testing in Dynamic Panels," Working Paper Series 1997:10, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    8. MacKinnon, James G. & Smith Jr., Anthony A., 1998. "Approximate bias correction in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 205-230, August.
    9. repec:cup:etheor:v:8:y:1992:i:2:p:258-75 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Joel L. Horowitz, 1996. "Bootstrap Critical Values for Tests Based on the Smoothed Maximum Score Estimator," Econometrics 9603003, EconWPA.
    11. Rilstone, Paul & Veall, Michael, 1996. "Using Bootstrapped Confidence Intervals for Improved Inferences with Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(03), pages 569-580, August.
    12. Li, Hongyi & Maddala, G. S., 1997. "Bootstrapping cointegrating regressions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 297-318, October.
    13. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119, June.
    14. Matz Dahlberg & Eva Johansson, 2000. "An examination of the dynamic behaviour of local governments using GMM bootstrapping methods," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(4), pages 401-416.
    15. Joel L. Horowitz, 1996. "Bootstrap Methods in Econometrics: Theory and Numerical Performance," Econometrics 9602009, EconWPA, revised 05 Mar 1996.
    16. Hall, Peter & Horowitz, Joel L, 1996. "Bootstrap Critical Values for Tests Based on Generalized-Method-of-Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 891-916, July.
    17. Bergstrom, P., 1997. "On Bootstrap Standard Errors in Dynamic Panel Data Models ," Papers 1997-23, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
    18. Harris, R. I. D. & Judge, G., 1998. "Small sample testing for cointegration using the bootstrap approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 31-37, January.
    19. Horowitz, Joel L, 1992. "A Smoothed Maximum Score Estimator for the Binary Response Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(3), pages 505-531, May.
    20. Harris, R I D, 1992. "Small Sample Testing for Unit Roots," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(4), pages 615-625, November.
    21. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    22. Manski, Charles F., 1975. "Maximum score estimation of the stochastic utility model of choice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 205-228, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Stan Hurn & Ralf Becker, 2009. "Testing for Nonlinearity in Mean in the Presence of Heteroskedasticity," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 311-326, September.
    2. Hugosson, Muriel Beser, 2005. "Quantifying uncertainties in a national forecasting model," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 531-547, July.
    3. Adrian Pagan & Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "Econometric Analysis of Structural Systems with Permanent and Transitory Shocks. Working paper #7," NCER Working Paper Series 7, National Centre for Econometric Research.

    More about this item


    Bootstrap; Sample Reuse Methods; Simulation Methods;

    JEL classification:

    • C40 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - General


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:uunewp:1999_002. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Katarina Grönvall). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.