Two Papers On Fertility - The Case Of Sweden
This thesis consists of two papers dealing with fertility in Sweden. In paper  we discuss possible explanations for the variation in the Swedish fertility. We are primarily interested in economic and social conditions and their impact on the total fertility rate between 1965 and 2003. The period is chosen because of (i) the strong fluctuation in the TFR during the period 1965-2003 and (ii) the positive correlation between fertility and the female labour market participation rate from the early 1980s. This contrasts to earlier periods when the negative relationship was prevalent. The results from the study support a positive effect on fertility from female labour market participation and child allowance while divorces report a negative effect. The model structure that includes short run as well as long run effects seems to be the best specified model of a number of different model structures presented in the paper. Contrary to the first paper, the second paper  has as starting point the number of children born by women in Sweden. A zero inflated Poisson model is applied to analyse if economic and social conditions have any impact on the number of children born by women in Sweden. The study is based upon women who have completed their life-time fertility cycle. The different variables on completed fertility is compared with women who still are in their fertile ages. The results show a difficulty to combine market work and children. The results also support the assumption that women with higher education have fewer children than women with lower education. However, an important conclusion from the study is that the negative correlation between a woman's level of education and her number of children only hold when incomplete fertility is analysed. The relationship between female education and children is not valid when completed fertility is studied.
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- Caudill, Steven B & Mixon, Franklin G, Jr, 1995. "Modeling Household Fertility Decisions: Estimation and Testing of Censored Regression Models for Count Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 183-96.
- Howard Gensler, 1997. "Welfare and the family size decision of low-income, two-parent families," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(10), pages 607-610.
- Löfström, Åsa & Westerberg, Thomas, 2006. "Variations in Fertility - a Consequense of Other Factors Besides Love?," Umeå Economic Studies 681, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
- James McIntosh, 1999. "An analysis of reproductive behaviour in Canada: Results from an intertemporal optimizing model," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 451-461.
- Cigno, Alessandro & Ermisch, John, 1989. "A microeconomic analysis of the timing of births," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 737-760, April.
- Becker, Gary S & Lewis, H Gregg, 1973. "On the Interaction between the Quantity and Quality of Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages S279-88, Part II, .
- William H. Greene, 1994. "Accounting for Excess Zeros and Sample Selection in Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression Models," Working Papers 94-10, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Francisco Covas & J.M.C. Santos Silva, 2000. "A modified hurdle model for completed fertility," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 173-188.
- Vuong, Quang H, 1989. "Likelihood Ratio Tests for Model Selection and Non-nested Hypotheses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 307-33, March.
- Butz, William P & Ward, Michael P, 1979. "The Emergence of Countercyclical U.S. Fertility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 318-28, June.
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