IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Alternative Measures of the Swedish Real Effective Exchange Rate


  • Nilsson, Kristian

    () (National Institute of Economic Research)


This study presents alternative measures of the Swedish real effective exchange rate (REER), based on three alternative weighting schemes and three alternative price indices. Pros and cons of alternative measures are discussed in the context of the REER as an indicator of competitiveness. Bivariate VAR-models are estimated in an effort to conclude whether or not the alternative REER measures contain leading information on real GDP, real investments and real net exports. The results may be interpreted as empirical support for the supposition that REERs based on export prices reflect competitiveness primarily for internationally trade goods and services, while REERs based on consumer prices serve as a broader indicator of competitiveness.

Suggested Citation

  • Nilsson, Kristian, 1999. "Alternative Measures of the Swedish Real Effective Exchange Rate," Working Papers 68, National Institute of Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:nierwp:0068

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jonathan D. Ostry, 1988. "The Balance of Trade, Terms of Trade, and Real Exchange Rate: An Intertemporal Optimizing Framework," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(4), pages 541-573, December.
    2. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 1996. "Foundations of International Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262150476, January.
    3. Arnold Harberger, 1986. "Economic Adjustment and the Real Exchange Rate," NBER Chapters,in: Economic Adjustment and Exchange Rates in Developing Countries, pages 369-424 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Lafrance, Robert & Osakwe, Patrick & St-Amant, Pierre, 1998. "Evaluating Alternative Measures of the Real Effective Exchange Rate," Staff Working Papers 98-20, Bank of Canada.
    5. Dixit, Avinash K, 1989. "Entry and Exit Decisions under Uncertainty," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 620-638, June.
    6. Froot, Kenneth A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1995. "Perspectives on PPP and long-run real exchange rates," Handbook of International Economics,in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 32, pages 1647-1688 Elsevier.
    7. Bela Balassa, 1964. "The Purchasing-Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72, pages 584-584.
    8. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-1176, December.
    9. Geweke, John, 1984. "Inference and causality in economic time series models," Handbook of Econometrics,in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 19, pages 1101-1144 Elsevier.
    10. Peter B. Clark & Steven A. Symansky & Tamim Bayoumi & Mark P. Taylor, 1994. "Robustness of Equilibrium Exchange Rate Calculations to Alternative Assumptions and Methodologies," IMF Working Papers 94/17, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Steven A. Symansky & Peter B. Clark & Leonardo Bartolini & Tamim Bayoumi, 1994. "Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals; A Framework for Analysis," IMF Occasional Papers 115, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Marit Hinnosaar & Hannes Kaadu & Lenno Uuskula, 2005. "Estimating the equilibrium exchange rate of the Estonian kroon," Bank of Estonia Working Papers 2005-2, Bank of Estonia, revised 10 Oct 2005.
    2. Bergvall, Anders, 2002. "The Stabilizing Properties of Floating Exchange Rates: Some International Evidence," Working Paper Series 2002:14, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    3. Li, Ying & Rowe, Francis, 2007. "Aid inflows and the real effective exchange rate in Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4456, The World Bank.
    4. Pelinescu, Elena & Caraiani, Petre, 2006. "Estimating the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) by Using the Unit Labor Cost (ULC) in Romania," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 3(4), pages 5-22, December.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:nierwp:0068. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sarah Hegardt Grant). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.