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Pensions and external effects of ageing; effects on distribution

  • Kruse, Agneta


    (Department of Economics, Lund University)

  • Nyberg, Kristian


    (National Board of Social Insurance)

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    Ageing gives rise to concern about the sustainability of pay-as-you-go pension systems. One reform option suggested is to make the system actuarial by a tight connection between contributions and benefits. The incentives for the individual will then coincide with the interest of the pension collective. However, the individual actions – fertility decisions, working hours, timing of retirement – also contain a collective part not taken into consideration in the individual’s utility maximisation, a 1/N problem. As pay-as you-go systems are indexed by growth, the index (rate of return) is influenced by these actions even if the system is ‘actuarially fair’. We trace the effects of changes in fertility and early exit/changes in working hours on different generations in an overlapping generation model. The economic model (a stylised model of the economy in aggregate and the pension system) is fitted into a simulation model. We show that the collective effect /external effects are far from negligible. Different measures to cope with these effects are discussed.

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    Paper provided by Lund University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 2004:27.

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    Length: 22 pages
    Date of creation: 02 Dec 2004
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hhs:lunewp:2004_027
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Department of Economics, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Box 7082, S-220 07 Lund,Sweden
    Phone: +46 +46 222 0000
    Fax: +46 +46 2224613
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    1. Marten Palme & lngemar Svensson, 1999. "Social Security, Occupational Pensions, and Retirement in Sweden," NBER Chapters, in: Social Security and Retirement around the World, pages 355-402 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Alessandro Cigno, & Luca Casolaro & Furio C. Rosati, 2001. "The Role of Social Security in Household Decisions: VAR Estimates of Saving and Fertility Behaviour in Germany," CHILD Working Papers wp07_01, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    3. Henning Bohn, 1999. "Social Security and Demographic Uncertainty: The Risk Sharing Properties of Alternative Policies," NBER Working Papers 7030, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Breyer, Friedrich & Graf v d Schulenburg, J-Matthias, 1987. "Voting on Social Security: The Family as Decision-Making Unit," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 529-47.
    5. Cigno, Alessandro, 1993. "Intergenerational transfers without altruism : Family, market and state," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 505-518, November.
    6. Fehr, H. & Sterkeby, W.I. & Thogersen, O., 2000. "Social Security Reforms and Early Retirement," Papers 16/00, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
    7. Heikki Oksanen, 2002. "Pension reform: key issues illustrated with an actuarial model," European Economy - Economic Papers 174, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    8. Lassila, Jukka & Valkonen, Tarmo, 2001. "Ageing, Demographic Risks, and Pension Reform," Discussion Papers 765, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    9. Martin Feldstein & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2001. "Social Security," NBER Working Papers 8451, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
      • Feldstein, Martin & Liebman, Jeffrey B., 2002. "Social security," Handbook of Public Economics, in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 32, pages 2245-2324 Elsevier.
    10. Palmer, Edward, 2000. "The Swedish pension reform model : framework and issues," Social Protection Discussion Papers 23086, The World Bank.
    11. Hans-Werner Sinn, 1999. "Pension Reform and Demographic Crisis: Why a Funded System is Needed and why it is not Needed," CESifo Working Paper Series 195, CESifo Group Munich.
    12. Kruse, Agneta, 2002. "Ageing Populations and Intergenerational Risk-sharing in PAYG Pension Schemes," Working Papers 2002:18, Lund University, Department of Economics.
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