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The Swedish pension reform model : framework and issues

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  • Palmer, Edward

Abstract

This paper describes the recent Swedish reform, and available options on major issues within this reform framework. In June 1994, Sweden's Parliament passed legislation replacing the old defined benefit system, with a combination of pay-as-you-go notional defined contribution (NDC), and a DC privately managed financial account scheme, based on a total contribution rate of 18.5 percent on earnings. The financial account scheme will have a state monopoly supplier of annuities, and, participants can choose, when they make their first choice in the autumn of 2000. If the NDC, and financial account schemes do not reach a minimum level by age 65, and the individual chooses to retire at this age, benefits from these systems will be supplemented up to the guarantee level, determined by Parliament, and financed with a state budget transfer. Life expectancy is factored into the NDC annuity, and together with the financial account system, this innovation helps to shift the risk of an aging society onto workers, while they are still active. There is no maximum retirements age, and the system offers a broad range of options for labor-force exit for older workers. Full, partial, or no earnings from work, can be combined freely with full, or partial annuities from one, or both of the public schemes from the minimum pension age of 61.

Suggested Citation

  • Palmer, Edward, 2000. "The Swedish pension reform model : framework and issues," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 23086, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:23086
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Alan J. Auerbach & Ronald Lee, 2009. "Notional Defined Contribution Pension Systems in a Stochastic Context: Design and Stability," NBER Chapters,in: Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment, pages 43-68 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Axel Borsch-Supan & Barbara Berkel, 2003. "Pension Reform in Germany: The Impact on Retirement Decisions," NBER Working Papers 9913, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Robert Holzmann & Richard Hinz, 2005. "Old Age Income Support in the 21st century: An International Perspective on Pension Systems and Reform," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7336.
    4. Barbara Berkel & Axel Börsch-Supan, 2003. "Renteneintrittsentscheidungen in Deutschland: Langfristige Auswirkungen verschiedener Reformoptionen," MEA discussion paper series 03031, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
    5. Kruse, Agneta & Nyberg, Kristian, 2004. "Pensions and external effects of ageing; effects on distribution," Working Papers 2004:27, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    6. Markus Knell, 2005. "Demographic Fluctuations, Sustainability Factors and Intergenerational Fairness – An Assessment of Austria's New Pension System," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1, pages 23-42.
    7. John B. Williamson, 2001. "Future Prospects for Notional Defined Contribution Schemes," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 2(4), pages 19-24, October.
    8. Markus Knell, 2005. "On the Design of Sustainable and Fair PAYG Pension Systems When Cohort Sizes Change," Working Papers 95, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    9. Börsch-Supan, A. & Härtl, K. & Leite, D.N., 2016. "Social Security and Public Insurance," Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, Elsevier.
    10. Erik Granseth & Wolfgang Keck & Wolfgang Nagl & Melinda Tir & Andras Simonovits, 2016. "Negative correlation between retirement age and contribution length?," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1633, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    11. Vittas, Dimitri, 2002. "Policies to promote saving for retirement : a synthetic overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2801, The World Bank.
    12. No authors listed, 2016. "Überlegungen zur fairen und nachhaltigen Ausgestaltung eines Pensionskontensystems," Working Paper Reihe der AK Wien - Materialien zu Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 159, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik.
    13. Friedrich Fritzer, 2004. "Financial Market Structure and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Perspective," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 72-87.
    14. Christina Benita Wilke, 2008. "On the feasibility of notional defined contribution systems: The German case," MEA discussion paper series 08165, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
    15. Axel Börsch-Supan, 2003. "What are NDC Pension Systems? What Do They Bring to Reform Strategies?," MEA discussion paper series 03042, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
    16. Axel Börsch-Supan, 2004. "From Traditional DB to Notional DC Systems," MEA discussion paper series 04063, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
    17. Alan Walker & Liam Foster, 2006. "Caught between virtue and ideological necessity. A century of pension policies in the UK," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 427-448.
    18. Axel Börsch-Supan & Barbara Berkel, 2004. "Pension Reform in Germany: The Impact on Retirement Decisions," MEA discussion paper series 04062, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
    19. Massimo Angrisani & Cinzia Di Palo, 2011. "A Necessary Sustainability Condition for partially Funded Pension Systems," MIC 2011: Managing Sustainability? Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, Portorož, 23–26 November 2011 [Selected Papers], University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper.

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