Non-employment, Ill-being and Subjective Well-being
Recent happiness studies by economists, sociologist and psychologists have produced many important new approaches and attitudes to focus less on objective variables and more on subjective well-being (SWB). Studies investigating life satisfaction (as a proxy of SWB) have identified strong relations with income, labour market status and health state. In this literature review we try to be acquainted with and analyse the dynamic effect of income, health state (ill-being) and labour market status (non-employment) on SWB. Studies collected together have numbers of evidence suggesting that money (own and others') really does matter, and subjective health state (ill-being) and non-employment status are strongly and negatively associated with SWB. The connection between SWB and health, SWB and employment, as well as health and employment has been widely investigated in the literature. However, the dynamics of poor health and non-employment, and their interrelation with SWB were rarely analysed. The review also deals with a range of methodological problems and contradictory evidence concerning the direction of causality between the investigated variables. Our research motivation is quite clear as Hungary is "unique" among the developed market economies and the transition countries with respect to some features: Hungary has almost the lowest employment rate, the highest involuntary early retirement share, the highest mortality rate, and almost the lowest SWB score.
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- Petri Böckerman & Pekka Ilmakunnas, 2009.
"Unemployment and self-assessed health: evidence from panel data,"
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(2), pages 161-179.
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- Axel Börsch-Supan & Hendrik Jürges, 2006.
"Early Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany,"
NBER Working Papers
12303, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Axel Börsch-Supan & Hendrik Jürges, 2009. "Early Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany," NBER Chapters, in: Developments in the Economics of Aging, pages 173-199 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Axel BÃ¶rsch-Supan & Hendrik JÃ¼rges, 2007. "Early Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany," MEA discussion paper series 07134, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
- Di Tella, Rafael & Haisken-De New, John & MacCulloch, Robert, 2010.
"Happiness adaptation to income and to status in an individual panel,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 834-852, December.
- Rafael Di Tella & John Haisken-De New & Robert MacCulloch, 2007. "Happiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel," NBER Working Papers 13159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bernard M.S. van Praag & P. Frijters & A. Ferrer-i-Carbonell, 2002.
"The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being,"
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers
02-022/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Robert J. MacCulloch & Rafael Di Tella & Andrew J. Oswald, 2001.
"Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment: Evidence from Surveys of Happiness,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 335-341, March.
- DiTella, Rafael & MacCulloch, Robert & Oswald, Andrew J., 2001. "Preferences over inflation and unemployment: Evidence from surveys of happiness," ZEI Working Papers B 03-2001, ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn.
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