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Entry restrictions, industry evolution, and dynamic efficiency: evidence from commercial banking

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Listed:
  • Jith Jayaratne
  • Philip E. Strahan

Abstract

This paper shows that bank performance improves significantly after restrictions on bank expansion are lifted. We find that operating costs and loan losses decrease sharply after states permit statewide branching and, to a lesser extent, after states allow interstate banking. The improvements following branching deregulation appear to occur because better banks grow at the expense of their less-efficient rivals. By retarding the "natural" evolution of the industry, branching restrictions reduce the performance of the average banking asset. We also find that most of the reduction in banks' costs are passed along to bank borrowers in the form of lower loan rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Jith Jayaratne & Philip E. Strahan, 1997. "Entry restrictions, industry evolution, and dynamic efficiency: evidence from commercial banking," Staff Reports 22, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:22
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Economides, Nicholas & Hubbard, R Glenn & Palia, Darius, 1996. "The Political Economy of Branching Restrictions and Deposit Insurance: A Model of Monopolistic Competition among Small and Large Banks," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(2), pages 667-704, October.
    2. Berger, Allen N & Hannan, Timothy H, 1989. "The Price-Concentration Relationship in Banking," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(2), pages 291-299, May.
    3. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 849-870, June.
    4. Schranz, Mary S, 1993. "Takeovers Improve Firm Performance: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 299-326, April.
    5. Hubbard, R. Glenn & Palia, Darius, 1995. "Executive pay and performance Evidence from the U.S. banking industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 105-130, September.
    6. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph M. Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trips It's Been," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 55-218.
    7. Flannery, Mark J., 1984. "The social costs of unit banking restrictions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 237-249, March.
    8. Susan McLaughlin, 1995. "The impact of interstate banking and branching reform: evidence from the states," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 1(May).
    9. Allen N. Berger & Timothy H. Hannan, 1987. "The price-concentration relationship in banking," Research Papers in Banking and Financial Economics 100, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    10. Paul S. Calem, 1994. "The impact of geographic deregulation on small banks," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Nov, pages 17-31.
    11. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    12. Douglas W. Caves & Laurits R. Christensen & Joseph A. Swanson, 1981. "Economic Performance in Regulated and Unregulated Environments: A Comparison of U. S. and Canadian Railroads," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 96(4), pages 559-581.
    13. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1982. "Welfare loss, redistribution effect, and restriction of output due to monopoly in banking," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 375-387.
    14. Kane, Edward J, 1996. "De Jure Interstate Banking: Why Only Now?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 141-161, May.
    15. Douglas D. Evanoff & Diana L. Fortier, 1987. "Reevaluation of the structure-conduct-performance paradigm in banking," Staff Memoranda 87-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
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    Cited by:

    1. Vicente Safón, 2008. "Promotion of service industries by means of entry restriction: the case of operators in the slot machine industry," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 85-97, May.

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