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Diversification of Geographic Risk in Retail Bank Networks: Evidence from Bank Expansion after the Riegle-Neal Act

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Listed:
  • Aguirregabiria, Victor
  • Clark, Robert
  • Wang, Hui

Abstract

The 1994 Riegle Neal (RN) Act removed interstate banking restrictions in the US. The primary motivation was to permit geographic risk diversification (GRD). Using a factor model to measure banks' geographic risk, we show that RN expanded GRD possibilities in small states, but that few banks took advantage. Using our measure of geographic risk and an empirical model of bank choice of branch network, we identify preferences towards GRD separately from the contribution of other factors that may limit the expansion of some banks after RN. Counterfactual experiments based on the estimated structural model show that risk has a significant negative effect on bank value, but this has been counterbalanced by economies of density/scale, reallocation/merging costs, and concerns for local market power.

Suggested Citation

  • Aguirregabiria, Victor & Clark, Robert & Wang, Hui, 2014. "Diversification of Geographic Risk in Retail Bank Networks: Evidence from Bank Expansion after the Riegle-Neal Act," CEPR Discussion Papers 9816, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:9816
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pablo D'Erasmo & Dean Corbae, 2018. "Capital Requirements in a Quantitative Model of Banking Industry Dynamics," 2018 Meeting Papers 1221, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    2. Goetz, Martin R. & Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2016. "Does the geographic expansion of banks reduce risk?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 346-362.
    3. Mark Egan & Ali Hortaçsu & Gregor Matvos, 2017. "Deposit Competition and Financial Fragility: Evidence from the US Banking Sector," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(1), pages 169-216, January.
    4. Alfredo Martín Oliver & Sonia Ruano Pardo & Vicente Salas Fumás, 2014. "Productivity and welfare: an application to the Spanish banking industry," Working Papers 1426, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    5. Leonardo Gambacorta & Luigi Guiso & Paolo Mistrulli & Andrea Pozzi & Anton Tsoy, 2017. "The Cost of Distorted Financial Advice - Evidence from the Mortgage Market," EIEF Working Papers Series 1713, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Oct 2017.
    6. Martin Goetz & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2014. "Does the Geographic Expansion of Bank Assets Reduce Risk?," NBER Working Papers 20758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Aguirregabiria, Victor & Clark, Robert & Wang, Hui, 2017. "The Geographic Flow of Bank Funding and Access to Credit: Branch Networks and Local-Market Competition," Queen's Economics Department Working Papers 274728, Queen's University - Department of Economics.
    8. repec:eee:indorg:v:57:y:2018:i:c:p:175-223 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Victor Aguirregabiria & Junichi Suzuki, 2015. "Empirical Games of Market Entry and Spatial Competition in Retail Industries," Working Papers tecipa-534, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    10. Pérez Montes, Carlos, 2014. "The effect on competition of banking sector consolidation following the financial crisis of 2008," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 124-136.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Branch networks; Commercial banking; Geographic risk diversification; Liquidity risk; Oligopoly competition; Riegle Neal Act;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation

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