Scale economies and geographic diversification as forces driving community bank mergers
Mergers of community banks across economic market areas potentially reduce both idiosyncratic and local market risk. Idiosyncratic risk may be reduced because the larger post merger bank has a larger customer base. Negative credit and liquidity shocks from individual customers would have smaller effects on the portfolio of the merged entity than on the individual community banks involved in the merger. Geographic dispersion of banking activities across economic market areas may reduce local market risk because an adverse economic development that is unique to one market area will not affect a bank*s loans to customers in different market areas. This paper simulates the mergers of community banks both within and across economic market areas by combining their call report data. We find that the potential for idiosyncratic risk reduction dominates the marginal contribution to risk reduction by diversifying across local markets. In other words, a typical community bank can reduce its insolvency risk about as much by merging with a bank across the street as it can by merging with one located across the country. The bulk of the pure portfolio diversification effects for community banks, therefore, appears to be unrelated to diversification across market areas and instead is related to bank size. These findings may help explain why many community banks have not pursued geographic diversification more aggressively, but they beg the question as to why more small community banks do not pursue in-market mergers.
|Date of creation:||2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.stlouisfed.org/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Joseph P. Hughes & William Lang & Loretta J. Mester & Choon-Geol Moon, 1998.
"The Dollars and Sense of Bank Consolidation,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
99-04, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Mark E. Levonian, 1994. "Interstate banking and risk," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue jul22.
- Andrew P. Meyer & Timothy J. Yeager, 2001. "Are small rural banks vulnerable to local economic downturns?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 25-38.
- Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
- Rivard, Richard J. & Thomas, Christopher R., 1997. "The effect of interstate banking on large bank holding company profitability and risk," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 61-76, February.
- Rose, Peter S, 1996. "The Diversification and Cost Effects of Interstate Banking," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 431-52, May.
- Allen, Linda & Jagtiani, Julapa, 2000. "The risk effects of combining banking, securities, and insurance activities," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(6), pages 485-497.
- John H. Boyd & Mark Gertler, 1994. "The role of large banks in the recent U.S. banking crisis," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 2-21.
- Boyd, John H. & Graham, Stanley L. & Hewitt, R. Shawn, 1993. "Bank holding company mergers with nonbank financial firms: Effects on the risk of failure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 43-63, February.
- Boyd, John H. & Runkle, David E., 1993. "Size and performance of banking firms : Testing the predictions of theory," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 47-67, February.
- Michelle Clark Neely & David C. Wheelock, 1997. "Why does bank performance vary across states?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 27-40.
- Liang, Nellie & Rhoades, Stephen A., 1988. "Geographic diversification and risk in banking," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 271-284, November.
- Kwast, Myron L., 1999. "Bank mergers: What should policymakers do?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 629-636, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedlsp:2002-02. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anna Xiao)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.