IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Analysis of panel vector error correction models using maximum likelihood, the bootstrap, and canonical-correlation estimators

  • Richard G. Anderson
  • Hailong Qian
  • Robert H. Rasche

In this paper, we examine the use of Box-Tiao*s (1977) canonical correlation method as an alternative to likelihood-based inferences for vector error-correction models. It is now well-known that testing of cointegration ranks based on Johansen*s (1995) ML-based method suffers from severe small sample size distortions. Furthermore, the distributions of empirical economic and financial time series tend to display fat tails, heteroskedasticity and skewness that are inconsistent with the usual distributional assumptions of likelihood-based approach. The testing statistic based on Box-Tiao*s canonical correlations shows promise as an alternative to Johansen*s ML-based approach for testing of cointegration rank in VECM models.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its series Working Papers with number 2006-050.

in new window

Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2006-050
Contact details of provider: Postal:
P.O. Box 442, St. Louis, MO 63166

Fax: (314)444-8753
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Email:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Mohammad Hashem Pesaran & Richard J Smith & Yongcheol Shin, 1999. "Structural analysis of vector error correction models with exogenous I(1) variables," ESE Discussion Papers 38, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  2. Harris, David, 1997. "Principal Components Analysis of Cointegrated Time Series," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(04), pages 529-557, August.
  3. Shin, Yongcheol, 1994. "A Residual-Based Test of the Null of Cointegration Against the Alternative of No Cointegration," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(01), pages 91-115, March.
  4. Ng, S. & Perron, P., 1995. "Estimation and Inference in Nearly Unbalanced, Nearly Cointegrated Systems," Cahiers de recherche 9534, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  5. Michael Binder & Cheng Hsiao & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2000. "Estimation and Inference in Short Panel Vector Autoregressions with Unit Roots and Cointegration," Working Papers 0005, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  6. O'Connell, Paul G. J., 1998. "The overvaluation of purchasing power parity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-19, February.
  7. Larsson, Rolf & Lyhagen, Johan, 1999. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Multivariate Panel Cointegration Models," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 331, Stockholm School of Economics.
  8. Peter Pedroni, 1999. "Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Department of Economics Working Papers 2000-02, Department of Economics, Williams College.
  9. repec:cup:etheor:v:13:y:1997:i:4:p:529-57 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Taylor, Mark P. & Sarno, Lucio, 1998. "The behavior of real exchange rates during the post-Bretton Woods period," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 281-312, December.
  11. Horvath, Michael T.K. & Watson, Mark W., 1995. "Testing for Cointegration When Some of the Cointegrating Vectors are Prespecified," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(05), pages 984-1014, October.
  12. Goncalves, Silvia & White, Halbert, 2002. "Maximum Likelihood and the Bootstrap for Nonlinear Dynamic Models," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt8hx21540, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  13. Yongcheol Shin & Ron P Smith & Mohammad Hashem Pesaran, 1998. "Pooled Mean Group Estimation of Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels," ESE Discussion Papers 16, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  14. H. Lütkepohl & D. S. Poskitt, 1996. "Consistent Estimation of the Number of Cointegration Relations in a Vector Autoregressive Model," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 1996,74, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
  15. Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, 2004. "Some cautions on the use of panel methods for integrated series of macroeconomic data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(2), pages 322-340, December.
  16. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1988. "Optimal Inference in Cointegrated Systems," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 866R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Aug 1989.
  17. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  18. Flores, Renato & Jorion, Philippe & Preumont, Pierre-Yves & Szafarz, Ariane, 1999. "Multivariate unit root tests of the PPP hypothesis," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 335-353, October.
  19. Westerlund, Joakim & Edgerton , David, 2005. "Panel Cointegration Tests with Deterministic Trends and Structural Breaks," Working Papers 2005:42, Lund University, Department of Economics.
  20. Peter Phillips & Hyungsik Moon, 2000. "Nonstationary panel data analysis: an overview of some recent developments," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 263-286.
  21. Bewley, Ronald & Orden, David & Yang, Minxian & Fisher, Lance A., 1994. "Comparison of Box--Tiao and Johansen canonical estimators of cointegrating vectors in VEC(1) models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 3-27.
  22. Phillips, Peter C B, 1995. "Fully Modified Least Squares and Vector Autoregression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(5), pages 1023-78, September.
  23. Gonzalo, Jesus & Pitarakis, Jean-Yves, 1998. "Specification via model selection in vector error correction models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 321-328, September.
  24. Tor Jacobson, 1995. "Simulating small-sample properties of the maximum likelihood cointegration method : estimation and testing," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 8(2), pages 96-107, Autumn.
  25. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501, December.
  26. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  27. Banerjee, Anindya, 1999. " Panel Data Unit Roots and Cointegration: An Overview," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 607-29, Special I.
  28. Karlsson, Sune & Lothgren, Mickael, 2000. "On the power and interpretation of panel unit root tests," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 249-255, March.
  29. Elliott, Graham, 1999. "Estimating Restricted Cointegrating Vectors," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt5sr55716, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  30. Aznar, Antonio & Salvador, Manuel, 2002. "Selecting The Rank Of The Cointegration Space And The Form Of The Intercept Using An Information Criterion," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(04), pages 926-947, August.
  31. Peter Pedroni, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests with an Application to the PPP Hypothesis," Department of Economics Working Papers 2004-15, Department of Economics, Williams College.
  32. Rolf Larsson & Johan Lyhagen & Mickael Lothgren, 2001. "Likelihood-based cointegration tests in heterogeneous panels," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 4(1), pages 41.
  33. Westerlund, Joakim, 2005. "New Simple Tests for Panel Cointegration," Working Papers 2005:8, Lund University, Department of Economics.
  34. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  35. Bewley, R. & Orden, D. & Fisher, L., 1991. "Box TIAO and Johansen Canonical Estimators of Cointegrating Vectors," Papers 91-5, New South Wales - School of Economics.
  36. Kao, Chihwa, 1999. "Spurious regression and residual-based tests for cointegration in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 1-44, May.
  37. Lyhagen, Johan, 2000. "Why not use standard panel unit root test for testing PPP," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 413, Stockholm School of Economics.
  38. Eriksson , Åsa, 2004. "Testing Structural Hypotheses on Cointegration Vectors: A Monte Carlo Study," Working Papers 2004:29, Lund University, Department of Economics.
  39. repec:cup:etheor:v:10:y:1994:i:1:p:95-115 is not listed on IDEAS
  40. Haug, A.A., 1992. "Tests for Cointegration: A Monte Carlo Comparison," Papers 93-2, York (Canada) - Department of Economics.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2006-050. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anna Xiao)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.