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Patent licensing revisited: heterogeneous firms and product differentiation

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  • Rubén Hernández-Murillo
  • Gerard Llobet

Abstract

In this paper we study the optimal licensing agreement between a patentholder of a cost-reducing innovation and firms that have heterogeneous uses for the new technology. We consider the case in which these firms are competitors in a downstream market. We extend the competition environment among the licensees beyond the Cournot/Bertrand models considered by the previous literature to a framework with differentiated products. We also assume that potential licensees have private information about the usefulness of the new technology. We characterize two purposes the optimal licensing contract serves to the patentholder: separation of the licensees and competition softening in the downstream market. We also describe how the optimal contract changes with the degree of product differentiation.

Suggested Citation

  • Rubén Hernández-Murillo & Gerard Llobet, 2004. "Patent licensing revisited: heterogeneous firms and product differentiation," Working Papers 2002-031, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2002-031
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Fauli-Oller, Ramon & Sandonis, Joel, 2002. "Welfare reducing licensing," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 192-205, November.
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    11. Ana I. Saracho, 2005. "The Relationship Between Patent Licensing And Competitive Behavior," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 73(5), pages 563-581, September.
    12. Choi, Jay Pil, 2001. "Technology transfer with moral hazard," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 249-266, January.
    13. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1993. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 302-304, March.
    14. Macho-Stadler, Ines & Perez-Castrillo, J. David, 2001. "An Introduction to the Economics of Information: Incentives and Contracts," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780199243259.
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    16. Wang, X Henry & Yang, Bill Z, 1999. "On Licensing under Bertrand Competition," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(2), pages 106-119, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Shane B. Evans, 2010. "Innovation Contracts with Leakage Through Licensing," ANU Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics 2010-530, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics.
    2. Chia Sun, 2014. "A conceptual framework for R&D strategic alliance assessment for Taiwan’s biotechnology industry," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 259-279, January.
    3. Rey, Patrick & Salant, David, 2012. "Abuse of dominance and licensing of intellectual property," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 518-527.
    4. Miao, Chun-Hui, 2016. "Licensing a technology standard," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 33-61.
    5. Evans, Shane, 2010. "Innovation contracts with leakage through licensing," Working Papers 10282, University of Tasmania, Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, revised 05 Oct 2010.
    6. Gilbert, Richard & Kristiansen, Eirik Gaard, 2015. "Licensing and Innovation with Imperfect Contract Enforcement," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 5/2015, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.
    7. San Martín Lizarralde, Marta & Saracho de la Torre, Ana Isabel, 2012. "Two-part tariff licensing mechanisms," IKERLANAK Ikerlanak;2012-59, Universidad del País Vasco - Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico I.
    8. Giebe, Thomas & Wolfstetter, Elmar G., 2006. "License Auctions with Royalty Contracts for Losers," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 96, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    9. Sandro Gleave & Eberhard Feess, 2016. "Fixed fee licensing for cost-reducing technologies: Should innovators reveal their private information?," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 781-799, October.
    10. Stefano Colombo & Luigi Filippini, 2016. "Revenue royalties," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 118(1), pages 47-76, May.
    11. repec:eee:proeco:v:193:y:2017:i:c:p:502-513 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Layne-Farrar, Anne & Llobet, Gerard, 2014. "Moving beyond simple examples: Assessing the incremental value rule within standards," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 57-69.
    13. Anthony Creane & Hideo Konishi, 2009. "Goldilocks and the Licensing Firm: Choosing a Partner when Rivals are Heterogeneous," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 720, Boston College Department of Economics.
    14. Weifang Lou, 2009. "Estimating the Impact of a Potential Process Innovation and the Optimal Strategy of Licensing," Working Papers 2009.03, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
    15. Gerard Llobet & Jorge Padilla, 2016. "The Optimal Scope of the Royalty Base in Patent Licensing," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(1), pages 45-73.
    16. Weifang Lou, 2009. "Estimating the Impact of a Potential Process Innovation and the Optimal Strategy of Licensing," Working Papers 2009.03, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
    17. Josep Pijoan-Mas, 2006. "Precautionary Savings or Working Longer Hours?," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(2), pages 326-352, April.
    18. Toshihiro Matsumura & Noriaki Matsushima, 2007. "On patent licensing in spatial competition with endogenous location choice," Discussion Papers 2007-35, Kobe University, Graduate School of Business Administration.
    19. Giebe, Thomas & Wolfstetter, Elmar, 2008. "License auctions with royalty contracts for (winners and) losers," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 91-106, May.

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