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Pricing and Hedging Illiquid Energy Derivatives:an Application to the JCC Index


  • Matteo Manera

    (University of Milan-Bicocca and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)

  • Elisa Scarpa

    (Banca Intesa)


In this paper we discuss a simple econometric strategy for pricing and hedging illiquid financial products, such as the Japanese crude oil cocktail (JCC) index, the most popular OTC energy derivative in Japan. First, we review the existing literature for computing optimal hedge ratios (OHR) and we propose a critical classification of the existing approaches. Second, we compare the empirical performance of different econometric models (namely, regression models in price-levels, price first differences, price returns, as well as error correction and autoregressive distributed lag models) in terms of their computed OHR using monthly data on the JCC over the period January 2000-January 2006. Third, we illustrate and implement a procedure to cross-hedge and price two different swaps on the JCC: a one-month swap and a three-month swap with a variable oil volume. We explain how to compute a bid/ask spread and to construct the hedging position for the JCC swap. Fourth, we evaluate our swap pricing scheme with backtesting and rolling regression techniques. Our empirical findings show that it is not necessary to use sophisticated econometric techniques, since the price level regression model permits to compute a more reliable optimal hedge ratio relative to its competing alternatives.

Suggested Citation

  • Matteo Manera & Elisa Scarpa, 2006. "Pricing and Hedging Illiquid Energy Derivatives:an Application to the JCC Index," Working Papers 2006.130, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2006.130

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Moschini, GianCarlo & Myers, Robert J., 2002. "Testing for constant hedge ratios in commodity markets: a multivariate GARCH approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 589-603, December.
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    3. Engle, Robert F. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1995. "Multivariate Simultaneous Generalized ARCH," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(01), pages 122-150, February.
    4. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-370, March.
    5. Coffey, Brian K. & Anderson, John D. & Parcell, Joseph L., 2000. "Optimal Hedging Ratios And Hedging Risk For Grain By-Products," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21804, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    6. Ederington, Louis H, 1979. "The Hedging Performance of the New Futures Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 157-170, March.
    7. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    8. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    9. Anderson, Ronald W & Danthine, Jean-Pierre, 1981. "Cross Hedging," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(6), pages 1182-1196, December.
    10. Lien, Donald & Tse, Y K, 2002. " Some Recent Developments in Futures Hedging," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 357-396, July.
    11. Dimitris Kenourgios & Aristeidis Samitas & Panagiotis Drosos, 2005. "Hedge ratio estimation and hedging effectiveness: the case of the S&P 500 stock index futures contract," Finance 0512018, EconWPA.
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    Cited by:

    1. Adams, Zeno & Gerner, Mathias, 2012. "Cross hedging jet-fuel price exposure," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1301-1309.

    More about this item


    Hedging Models; Cross-Hedging; Energy Derivatives; Illiquid Financial Products; Commodity Markets; JCC Price Index;

    JEL classification:

    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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