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Bio-Ecological Diversity vs. Socio-Economic Diversity: A Comparison of Existing Measures

Author

Listed:
  • Carole Maignan

    (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)

  • Gianmarco Ottaviano

    (Università di Bologna, CEPR London and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)

  • Dino Pinelli

    (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)

  • Francesco Rullani

    (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)

Abstract

This paper aims to enrich the standard toolbox for measuring diversity in economics. In so doing, we compare the indicators of diversity used by economists with those used by biologists and ecologists. Ecologists and biologists are concerned about biodiversity: the diversity of organisms that inhabit a given area. Concepts of species diversity such as alpha (diversity within community), beta (diversity across communities) and gamma (diversity due to differences among samples when they are combined into a single sample) have been developed (Whittaker, 1960). Biodiversity is more complex than just the species that are present, it includes species richness and species evenness. Those various aspects of diversity are measured by biodiversity indices such as Simpson’s Diversity Indices, Species Richness Index, Shannon Weaver Diversity Indices, Patil and Taillie Index, Modified Hill’s Ratio. In economics, diversity measures are multi-faceted ranging from inequality (Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, quintile distribution), to polarisation (Esteban and Ray, 1994; Wolfon, 1994, D’Ambrosio (2001)) and heterogeneity (Alesina, Baqir and Hoxby, 2000). We propose an interdisciplinary comparison between indicators. We review their theoretical background and applications. We provide an assessment of their possible use according to their specific properties.

Suggested Citation

  • Carole Maignan & Gianmarco Ottaviano & Dino Pinelli & Francesco Rullani, 2003. "Bio-Ecological Diversity vs. Socio-Economic Diversity: A Comparison of Existing Measures," Working Papers 2003.13, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2003.13
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Alberto Alesina & Eliana La Ferrara, 2000. "Participation in Heterogeneous Communities," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(3), pages 847-904.
    2. Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & Caroline Hoxby, 2004. "Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 348-396, April.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pierpaolo Parrotta & Dario Pozzoli & Mariola Pytlikova, 2014. "The nexus between labor diversity and firm’s innovation," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(2), pages 303-364, April.
    2. Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano & Giovanni Peri, 2016. "The economic value of cultural diversity: evidence from US cities," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: The Economics of International Migration, chapter 7, pages 229-264 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Pierpaolo Parrotta & Dario Pozzoli & Mariola Pytlikova, 2014. "The nexus between labor diversity and firm’s innovation," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(2), pages 303-364, April.
    4. Nocco, Antonella & Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P. & Salto, Matteo, 2017. "Monopolistic competition and optimum product selection: Why and how heterogeneity matters," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(4), pages 704-717.
    5. Dobis, Elizabeth A. & Delgado, Michael S. & Florax, Raymond J.G.M & Mulder, Peter, 2015. "The Significance of Urban Hierarchy in Explaining Population Dynamics in the United States," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205869, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association;Western Agricultural Economics Association.
    6. Parrotta, Pierpaolo & Pozzoli, Dario & Pytlikova, Mariola, 2010. "Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?," Working Papers 10-12, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
    7. Richard Stedman & Mike Patriquin & John Parkins, 2012. "Dependence, diversity, and the well-being of rural community: building on the Freudenburg legacy," Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, Springer;Association of Environmental Studies and Sciences, vol. 2(1), pages 28-38, March.
    8. Bakens, J. & Nijkamp, P., 2011. "Lessons from migration impact analysis," Serie Research Memoranda 0022, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    9. Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P., 2012. "Agglomeration, trade and selection," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 987-997.
    10. Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2014. "Immigration, Diversity and the Labour Market Outcomes of Native Workers: Some Recent Developments," CEP Discussion Papers dp1292, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    11. Parrotta, Pierpaolo & Pozzoli, Dario & Pytlikova, Mariola, 2014. "Labor diversity and firm productivity," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 144-179.
    12. van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M., 2008. "Optimal diversity: Increasing returns versus recombinant innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 68(3-4), pages 565-580, December.
    13. van den Heuvel, Stijn T.A. & van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M., 2009. "Multilevel assessment of diversity, innovation and selection in the solar photovoltaic industry," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 50-60, March.
    14. Ratna, Nazmun N. & Quentin Grafton, R. & Kompas, Tom, 2009. "Is diversity bad for economic growth?: Evidence from state-level data in the US," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 859-870, December.
    15. Bakens, J. & Nijkamp, P., 2011. "Migrant heterogeneity and urban development: A conceptual analysis," Serie Research Memoranda 0046, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Diversity; Growth; Knowledge;

    JEL classification:

    • C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
    • Z10 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - General

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