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Climate element of migration decision in Ghana: Micro Evidence

Author

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  • Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah

    () (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)

Abstract

The debate about how environmental or climate factors affect migration decisions has generated a lot of interest in recent times, however empirical studies about the subject are limited and fragmented. This paper investigates the effect of climate factors on migration decisions by comparing the 2005/06 and 2012/13 rounds of Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS5 and GLSS6), using Heckman two-stage method to account for selectivity bias. The climate condition in various ecological zones of Ghana is used as a proxy to investigate the effect of climate elements on migration decision. Results show that socio-economic factors such as anticipated welfare gains, household size, education, the sector of employment and others, together with climatic element do significantly affect an individual’s migration decision. Findings further suggest a positive effect of climate element on migration decisions. The coastal savannah and forest ecological zones have a greater probability of accommodating more in-migrants relative to the northern savannah ecological zone. In addition, marginal effects reveal that the probability to migrate to coastal savannah zone relative to northern zones is higher than the probability to migrate to forest zones relative to northern zone. Moreover, anticipated welfare gains reinforce the effect of climate elements and also entrenches the divergence between the probability of migrating to coastal and forest zones relative to the northern zones. With the current climate change of high temperature and low rainfall, migration may be considered as one of the several adaptation strategies in response to changes in the environment.

Suggested Citation

  • Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah, 2015. "Climate element of migration decision in Ghana: Micro Evidence," Working Papers 2015.18, FAERE - French Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.
  • Handle: RePEc:fae:wpaper:2015.18
    as

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    File URL: http://faere.fr/pub/WorkingPapers/Amuakwa-Mensah_FAERE_WP2015.18.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Stern,Nicholas, 2007. "The Economics of Climate Change," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521700801, December.
    2. Frederick Armah & Justice Odoi & Genesis Yengoh & Samuel Obiri & David Yawson & Ernest Afrifa, 2011. "Food security and climate change in drought-sensitive savanna zones of Ghana," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 291-306, March.
    3. Coniglio, Nicola D. & Pesce, Giovanni, 2015. "Climate variability and international migration: an empirical analysis," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(4), pages 434-468, August.
    4. Satu Nivalainen, 2003. "Who move to rural areas? Micro Evidence from Finland," ERSA conference papers ersa03p214, European Regional Science Association.
    5. Jacob Mincer, 1958. "Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 281-281.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Climate; environment; migration; Heckman two-stage; Ghana.;

    JEL classification:

    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • Q57 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Ecological Economics

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