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The Gendered Aspects of MSEs in MENA: Evidence from Egypt and Turkey


  • Fatma El-Hamidi

    (Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh)

  • Cem Baslevent


This study attempts to shed light on the gendered aspect of MSEs (i.e. how the sectors of activities, income, growth, etc. differ by the gender of the entrepreneur) and tests some of the main claims of the rather modest available literature by means of an econometric analysis. The empirical work utilizes nationally representative MSE surveys conducted for Turkey and Egypt in 2001 and 2003 respectively (for brevity, we hereafter use “E&T” to refer to “Egypt and Turkey”). The working sample has 4136 and 4238 permanent establishments located in the urban areas of Egypt and Turkey, respectively. By identifying the sectors and types of activities females are more likely to thrive in, this study calls attention to those sectors where direct intervention by the government will be more effective, and provide some guidance for making proposals to further reduce the extent of gender-differences and practices in MSEs.

Suggested Citation

  • Fatma El-Hamidi & Cem Baslevent, 2010. "The Gendered Aspects of MSEs in MENA: Evidence from Egypt and Turkey," Working Papers 535, Economic Research Forum, revised 08 Jan 2010.
  • Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:535

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Du Rietz, Anita & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000. "Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 1-10, February.
    2. Brown, J David & Earle, John S & Lup, Dana, 2005. "What Makes Small Firms Grow? Finance, Human Capital, Technical Assistance, and the Business Environment in Romania," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(1), pages 33-70, October.
    3. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
    4. Candida G. Brush, 1992. "Research on Women Business Owners: Past Trends, a New Perspective and Future Directions," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 16(4), pages 5-30, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Fatma El-Hamidi & Cem Baslevent, 2013. "Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Urban Economies: A Comparative Study of Egypt and Turkey at the Province Level," Working Papers 761, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2013.
    2. Hala El-Said & Mahmoud Al-Said & Chahir Zaki, 2015. "Trade and access to finance of SMEs: is there a nexus?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(39), pages 4184-4199, August.
    3. Hala El-Said & Mahmoud Al-Said & Chahir Zaki, 2013. "What Determines the Access to Finance of SMEs? Evidence from the Egyptian Case," Working Papers 752, Economic Research Forum, revised May 2013.
    4. Hadi Salehi Esfahani & Roksana Bahramitash, 2015. "Gender, Enterprise Ownership, and Labor Allocation in MENA: the Roles of Islam, Oil, and Government Policies," Working Papers 951, Economic Research Forum, revised Sep 2015.
    5. Fatma El-Hamidi, 2011. "How Do Women Entrepreneurs Perform? Empirical Evidence from Egypt," Working Papers 621, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2011.

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