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Gas y Electricidad: ¿qué hacer ahora? (Gas and electricity: What should we do now?)

Author

Listed:
  • Alexander Galetovic
  • Juan Ricardo Inostroza
  • Cristián Marcelo Muñoz

Abstract

La traída del gas natural argentino para generar energía eléctrica fue muy beneficiosa para Chile. Si se pierde el gas argentino —advierten los autores de este trabajo—, el costo de generación de electricidad, sólo en el SIC, aumentará en aproximadamente US$ 350 millones por año. Esta pérdida es grande: equivale a 0,5% del PGB o a la mitad del valor de los acuerdos comerciales que Chile firmó con los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea. ¿Por qué en Chile central una escasez de agua o de gas natural deviene en una crisis eléctrica? En este estudio se sostiene que la disponibilidad volátil de agua y de gas natural, por sequía o por corte, obligan a reducir el consumo en años de escasez extrema. Sin embargo, las situaciones de escasez no necesariamente deben terminar en crisis. Éstas ocurren —plantean los autores— porque el sistema de precios es inflexible. Para solucionar el problema se propone eliminar el límite de clientes libres, separar la comercialización de energía de su distribución y liberalizar los precios y las condiciones de contrato. Esta liberalización, se señala, permitiría seguir usando gas natural argentino sin que los cortes de suministro generen crisis de abastecimiento. Además, la liberalización no tendría por qué aumentar los precios sino que, por el contrario, la competencia debería provocar caídas de tarifas que en buena parte compensarían los costos de una hipotética pérdida completa del gas natural argentino.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexander Galetovic & Juan Ricardo Inostroza & Cristián Marcelo Muñoz, 2004. "Gas y Electricidad: ¿qué hacer ahora? (Gas and electricity: What should we do now?)," Documentos de Trabajo 198, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  • Handle: RePEc:edj:ceauch:198
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    3. Serra, Pablo & Fierro, Gabriel, 1997. "Outage costs in Chilean industry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 417-434, October.
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    5. Juan Pablo Montero & Hugh Rudnick, 2001. "Precios Eléctricos Flexibles," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 38(113), pages 91-109.
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