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Getting the Most out of Giving: Pursuing Concretely-Framed Prosocial Goals Maximizes Happiness

Author

Listed:
  • Rudd, Melanie

    (Stanford University)

  • Aaker, Jennifer

    (Stanford University)

  • Norton, Michael I.

    (Harvard University)

Abstract

Across six field and laboratory experiments, participants given a concretely-framed prosocial goal (e.g., making someone smile, increasing recycling) felt happier after performing a goal-directed act of kindness than did those who were assigned a functionally similar, but more abstractly-framed, prosocial goal (e.g., making someone happy, saving the environment). This effect was driven by differences in the size of the gap between participants' expectations and reality: Compared to those assigned to pursue an abstractly-framed prosocial goal, those assigned to pursue a concretely-framed goal perceived that the actual outcome of their goal-directed efforts more accurately matched their expectations, causing them to experience a greater boost in personal happiness. Further, participants were unable to predict this effect, believing that pursuing abstractly-framed prosocial goals would have either an equal or greater positive impact on their own happiness.

Suggested Citation

  • Rudd, Melanie & Aaker, Jennifer & Norton, Michael I., 2013. "Getting the Most out of Giving: Pursuing Concretely-Framed Prosocial Goals Maximizes Happiness," Research Papers 2129, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecl:stabus:2129
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    File URL: https://gsbapps.stanford.edu/researchpapers/library/RP2129.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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