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Bank funding constraints and the cost of capital of small firms

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Abstract

This paper analyzes how banks' funding constraints impact the access and cost of capital of small firms. Banks raise external finance from a large number of small investors who face co-ordination problems and invest in small, risky businesses. When investors observe noisy signals about the true implementation cost of real sector projects, the model can be solved for a threshold equilibrium in the classical global games approach. We show that a "socially optimal" interest rate that maximizes the probability of success of the small firm is higher than the risk-free rate, because higher interest rates relax the bank's funding constraint. However, banks will generally set an interest rate higher than this socially optimal one. This gives rise to a built-in inefficiency of banking intermediation activity that can be corrected by various policy measures.

Suggested Citation

  • Peia, Oana & Vranceanu, Radu, 2015. "Bank funding constraints and the cost of capital of small firms," ESSEC Working Papers WP1501, ESSEC Research Center, ESSEC Business School.
  • Handle: RePEc:ebg:essewp:dr-15001
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    1. Sharpe, Steven A, 1990. " Asymmetric Information, Bank Lending, and Implicit Contracts: A Stylized Model of Customer Relationships," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1069-1087, September.
    2. Rajkamal Iyer & José-Luis Peydró & Samuel da-Rocha-Lopes & Antoinette Schoar, 2014. "Interbank Liquidity Crunch and the Firm Credit Crunch: Evidence from the 2007--2009 Crisis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(1), pages 347-372, January.
    3. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
    4. Agur, Itai, 2013. "Wholesale bank funding, capital requirements and credit rationing," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 38-45.
    5. Daniel Paravisini, 2008. "Local Bank Financial Constraints and Firm Access to External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2161-2193, October.
    6. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V, 1994. "Moral Hazard and Secured Lending in an Infinitely Repeated Credit Market Game," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(4), pages 899-920, November.
    7. Agur, Itai, 2012. "Credit rationing when banks are funding constrained," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 220-227.
    8. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
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    Keywords

    Bank finance; Small business; Global games; Optimal return; Strategic uncertainty;

    JEL classification:

    • C72 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Noncooperative Games
    • D82 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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