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Are the Female Headed Households More Food Insecure? Evidence from Bangladesh

This paper uses household and village level survey data to investigate the food security of male and female headed households in Bangladesh with particular attention to indigenous ethnic groups. Given the broadness of the concept of food security and complexities of choosing any particular metric, we depend on the perceptions of the respondents about their own food security status. Based on food production, availability, purchasing power and access to common resources, the respondents defined the food security status of their households in any of the four categories—severe (chronic) food shortage, occasional (transitory) food shortage, breakeven, and food surplus. Given the ordered nature of the responses, a generalized threshold model has been estimated. We do not find any significant difference in the food security between the male and female headed households especially among the indigenous ethnic groups. This result contradicts the conventional idea about the vulnerability of the female headed households. However, we find that the female heads are “activity burdened” as they maintain household chores in addition to working outside. Absence of social and cultural restrictions among the indigenous groups permits greater freedom to their females to participate in the labor force. This coupled with lower dependency ratio in the female headed households is attributed to their less food insecurity. This result may be indicative in the sense that non-economic institutions can significantly impact upon economic outcomes such as improving the food security of a household especially the female headed one. This has important policy implications as well. Designing development assistance programs should take into consideration the social and cultural heterogeneity even within a region in a country.

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File URL: http://www.deakin.edu.au/buslaw/aef/workingpapers/papers/2008_08eco.pdf
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Paper provided by Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance in its series Economics Series with number 2008_08.

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Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 17 Oct 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dkn:econwp:eco_2008_08
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  1. Morduch, J., 1995. "Income Smoothing and Consumption Smoothing," Papers 512, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
  2. Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2000. "The Poverty and Heterogeneity Among Female-Headed Households Revisited: The Case of Panama," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 1515-1542, August.
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  14. Buvinic, Mayra & Gupta, Geeta Rao, 1997. "Female-Headed Households and Female-Maintained Families: Are They Worth Targeting to Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 259-80, January.
  15. Barros, Ricardo & Fox, Louise & Mendonca, Rosane, 1997. "Female-Headed Households, Poverty, and the Welfare of Children in Urban Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 231-57, January.
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