Are the Female Headed Households More Food Insecure? Evidence from Bangladesh
This paper uses household and village level survey data to investigate the food security of male and female headed households in Bangladesh with particular attention to indigenous ethnic groups. Given the broadness of the concept of food security and complexities of choosing any particular metric, we depend on the perceptions of the respondents about their own food security status. Based on food production, availability, purchasing power and access to common resources, the respondents defined the food security status of their households in any of the four categories—severe (chronic) food shortage, occasional (transitory) food shortage, breakeven, and food surplus. Given the ordered nature of the responses, a generalized threshold model has been estimated. We do not find any significant difference in the food security between the male and female headed households especially among the indigenous ethnic groups. This result contradicts the conventional idea about the vulnerability of the female headed households. However, we find that the female heads are “activity burdened” as they maintain household chores in addition to working outside. Absence of social and cultural restrictions among the indigenous groups permits greater freedom to their females to participate in the labor force. This coupled with lower dependency ratio in the female headed households is attributed to their less food insecurity. This result may be indicative in the sense that non-economic institutions can significantly impact upon economic outcomes such as improving the food security of a household especially the female headed one. This has important policy implications as well. Designing development assistance programs should take into consideration the social and cultural heterogeneity even within a region in a country.
|Date of creation:||17 Oct 2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 61 3 9244 3815
Web page: http://www.deakin.edu.au/buslaw/aef/index.php
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Morduch, J., 1995.
"Income Smoothing and Consumption Smoothing,"
512, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
- Jonathan Morduch, 1995. "Income Smoothing and Consumption Smoothing," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1727, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2000. "The Poverty and Heterogeneity Among Female-Headed Households Revisited: The Case of Panama," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 1515-1542, August.
- Esther Duflo & Christopher Udry, 2004.
"Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Cote d'Ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices,"
NBER Working Papers
10498, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Esther Duflo & Christopher Udry, 2003. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Côte D'ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices," Working Papers 857, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Christopher R. Udry & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Cote D'Ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm407, Yale School of Management.
- Stefan Boes & Rainer Winkelmann, 2006.
"Ordered response models,"
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis,
Springer, vol. 90(1), pages 167-181, March.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Stark, Oded, 1989.
"Consumption Smoothing, Migration, and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 905-26, August.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Stark, Oded, 1987. "Consumption Smoothing, Migration and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India," Bulletins 7515, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Thomas, D., 1989.
"Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach,"
586, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
- Debdulal Mallick, 2009.
"Marginal and Interaction Effects in Ordered Response Models,"
EERI Research Paper Series
EERI_RP_2009_22, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
- Mallick, Debdulal, 2008. "Marginal and Interaction Effects in Ordered Response Models," MPRA Paper 9617, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Debdulal Mallick, 2008. "Marginal and Interaction Effects in Ordered Response Models," Economics Series 2008_13, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
- Chetty, Raj & Looney, Adam, 2006.
"Consumption smoothing and the welfare consequences of social insurance in developing economies,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 90(12), pages 2351-2356, December.
- Raj Chetty & Adam Looney, 2005. "Consumption Smoothing and the Welfare Consequences of Social Insurance in Developing Economies," NBER Working Papers 11709, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lanjouw, Peter & Ravallion, Martin & DEC, 1994.
"Poverty and household size,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1332, The World Bank.
- Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Haddad, Lawrence James & Peña, Christine, 1995. "Gender and poverty," FCND discussion papers 9, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Townsend, R.M., 1991.
"Risk and Insurance in Village India,"
University of Chicago - Economics Research Center
91-3, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
- Robert M. Townsend, . "Risk and Insurance in Village India," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 91-3a, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Elaina Rose, 1999. "Consumption Smoothing and Excess Female Mortality in Rural India," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 41-49, February.
- Timothy Besley, 1995. "Nonmarket Institutions for Credit and Risk Sharing in Low-Income Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 115-127, Summer.
- Buvinic, Mayra & Gupta, Geeta Rao, 1997. "Female-Headed Households and Female-Maintained Families: Are They Worth Targeting to Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 259-80, January.
- Barros, Ricardo & Fox, Louise & Mendonca, Rosane, 1997. "Female-Headed Households, Poverty, and the Welfare of Children in Urban Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 231-57, January.
- Robert M. Townsend, 1995. "Consumption Insurance: An Evaluation of Risk-Bearing Systems in Low-Income Economies," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 83-102, Summer.
- Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
- Dreze, Jean & Srinivasan, P. V., 1997. "Widowhood and poverty in rural India: Some inferences from household survey data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 217-234, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dkn:econwp:eco_2008_08. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dr Xueli Tang)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.