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Die wahrgenommene Gerechtigkeit des eigenen Einkommens: geschlechtstypische Muster und die Bedeutung des Haushaltskontextes

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  • Stefan Liebig
  • Carsten Sauer
  • Jürgen Schupp

Abstract

The rise in female labor market participation and the growth of ¿atypical¿ employment arrangements has, over the last few decades, brought about a steadily decreasing percentage of households in which the man is the sole breadwinner, and a rising percentage of dual-earner households. Against this backdrop, the present paper inves-tigates how household contexts in which the traditional "male breadwinner" model still exists or has already been challenged affect individuals' subjective evaluations of the justice of their personal earnings. In the first step we derive three criteria used by individuals to evaluate the fairness or justice of their personal earnings: compensation for services rendered, coverage of basic needs, and the opportunity to earn social approval. In the second step, we apply considerations from household economics and new approaches from gender research to explain why men's and women's evaluations of justice are determined to a considerable degree by the specific situation within their household. The assumptions derived regarding gender-specific patterns in justice attitudes are then tested on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) from 2007 and 2005. The results support our central thesis that gender-specific patterns in the evaluation of personal earnings are both reduced and increased in dual-earner households. They are reduced because women in dual-income households tend to have higher income expectations that challenge the existing gender wage gap. At the same time, gender-specific patterns are increased because men evaluate the equity of their personal income in relation to their ability to fulfill traditional gender norms and thus their capacity to live up to corresponding notions of "masculinity". Die zunehmende Erwerbsbeteiligung von Frauen und die Ausbreitung "atypischer" Beschäftigungsverhältnisse hat zur Folge, dass der Anteil an Haushalten, in denen der Mann der alleinige Ernährer der Familie ist, abnimmt und der Anteil an Zweiverdienerhaushalten seit Jahren ansteigt. Vor diesem Hintergrund fragt dieser Beitrag, welche Bedeutung Haushaltskontexte, in denen das traditionelle male-breadwinner Modell noch existiert bzw. bereits in Frage gestellt ist, für die Bewertung der Gerechtigkeit des eigenen Erwerbseinkommens haben. Dazu werden in einem ersten Schritt drei Beurteilungskriterien der Gerechtigkeit des eigenen Einkommens hergeleitet: Kompensation erbrachter Leistungen, Bedarfsabsicherung und Ermöglichung sozialer Wertschätzung. In einem zweiten Schritt wird erläutert, warum die Gerechtigkeitsurteile von Männern und Frauen maßgeblich von der spezifischen Situation im jeweiligen Haushalt bestimmt sind. Die daraus abgeleiteten Annahmen zu geschlechtstypischen Mustern von Gerechtigkeitseinstellungen werden mithilfe von Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels aus den Jahren 2007 und 2005 überprüft. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in Zweiverdienerhaushalten geschlechtstypische Muster bei der Bewertung des eigenen Einkommens verringert und verstärkt werden: Verringert werden sie, weil Frauen in Zweiverdienerhaushalten höhere Ansprüche an ihr Lohnniveau haben, und verstärkt werden sie, weil Männer die Bewertung ihres Erwerbseinkommens davon abhängig machen, ob es sie in die Lage versetzt, den traditionellen Geschlechternormen und den darin transportierten Vorstellungen über "Männlichkeit" entsprechen zu können.

Suggested Citation

  • Stefan Liebig & Carsten Sauer & Jürgen Schupp, 2010. "Die wahrgenommene Gerechtigkeit des eigenen Einkommens: geschlechtstypische Muster und die Bedeutung des Haushaltskontextes," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 309, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp309
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    1. Buunk, Abraham P. & Gibbons, Frederick X., 2007. "Social comparison: The end of a theory and the emergence of a field," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 3-21, January.
    2. Cohen-Charash, Yochi & Spector, Paul E., 2001. "The Role of Justice in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 278-321, November.
    3. Fong, Christina M. & Bowles, Samuel & Gintis, Herbert, 2006. "Strong reciprocity and the welfare state," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier.
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    Cited by:

    1. Miething, Alexander, 2013. "A matter of perception: Exploring the role of income satisfaction in the income–mortality relationship in German survey data 1995–2010," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 72-79.
    2. Schröder, Melanie & Schmitt, Norma & Mantei, Britta & Brünn, Claudia, 2014. "Social Norms or Income Taxation - What Drives Couple's Labor Supply? Experimental Evidence," Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100375, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Schröder, Melanie & Schmitt, Norma & Heynemann, Britta & Brünn, Claudia, 2013. "Income Taxation and Labor Supply: An Experiment on Couple's Work Effort," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79735, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.

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    Keywords

    Einkommensgerechtigkeit; Geschlecht; Zweiverdienerhaushalte; Geschlechternormen; fairness; equity; inequality; pay differentials; dual-earner households; gender; gender norms;

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