Normative and allocation role strain: role incompatibility, outsourcing, and the transition to a second birth in Eastern and Western Germany
The challenges women face in reconciling their work and family responsibilities are at the heart of current explanations concerning the low fertility levels in developed countries. This study examines the role of the outsourcing of household labor and of childcare responsibilities in reducing the incompatibility of women’s roles and in increasing fertility in the two different institutional and normative contexts of Eastern and Western Germany. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel, we analyzed whether Eastern and Western German women who outsourced childcare responsibilities to formal and informal care providers in the first and in the third years after the first birth were at higher risk of having a second child. Drawing on Goode’s role strain theory, we suggest that the incompatibility of women’s roles is affected not only by allocation role strain, but also by normative role strain. Our results indicate that the outsourcing of childcare to formal providers and to grandparents reduces, rather than increases, the propensity to have a second child among Western German women, due to normative role strain. We also find a significant positive effect of the outsourcing of housework on the transition to a second birth in Germany, due to the decline in allocation role strain.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.demogr.mpg.de/|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Tomas Frejka & Gérard Calot, 2001. "Cohort Reproductive Patterns in Low-Fertility Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 27(1), pages 103-132.
- Viktor Steiner & Katharina Wrohlich, 2004.
"Household Taxation, Income Splitting and Labor Supply Incentives: A Microsimulation Study for Germany,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
421, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Viktor Steiner & Katharina Wrohlich, 2004. "Household Taxation, Income Splitting and Labor Supply Incentives – A Microsimulation Study for Germany," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 50(3), pages 541-568.
- Lídia Farré & Libertad González Luna & Francesc Ortega, 2009.
"Immigration, family responsibilities and the labor supply of skilled native women,"
Economics Working Papers
1161, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Farré Lidia & González Libertad & Ortega Francesc, 2011. "Immigration, Family Responsibilities and the Labor Supply of Skilled Native Women," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-48, June.
- Farré, Lídia & Gonzalez, Libertad & Ortega, Francesc, 2009. "Immigration, Family Responsibilities and the Labor Supply of Skilled Native Women," IZA Discussion Papers 4265, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Francesc Ortega & Libertad González & Lídia Farré Olalla, 2009. "Immigration, family responsibilities and the labor supply of skilled native women," Working Papers. Serie AD 2009-19, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- Lidia Farre & Libertad Gonzalez & Francesc Ortega, 2009. "Immigration, Family Responsibilities and the Labor Supply of Skilled Native Women," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0916, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Pollak, Robert A, 1985. "A Transaction Cost Approach to Families and Households," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 23(2), pages 581-608, June.
- Heike Trappe & Annemette Sørensen, 2006. "Economic Relations Between Women And Their Partners: An East And West German Comparison After Reunification," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 643-665.
- Karsten Hank & Michaela Kreyenfeld, 2000. "Does the availability of childcare influence the employment of mothers? Findings from western Germany," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2000-003, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Markus M. Grabka, 2011. "Codebook for the $PEQUIV File 1984-2010: CNEF Variables with Extended Income Information for the SOEP," Data Documentation 57, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Berna Miller Torr & Susan E. Short, 2004. "Second Births and the Second Shift: A Research Note on Gender Equity and Fertility," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(1), pages 109-130.
- Peter McDonald, 2000. "Gender Equity in Theories of Fertility Transition," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 26(3), pages 427-439.
- Furtado, Delia & Hock, Heinrich, 2008. "Immigrant Labor, Child-Care Services, and the Work-Fertility Trade-Off in the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 3506, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ronald Rindfuss & S. Morgan & Kate Offutt, 1996. "Education and the changing age pattern of American fertility: 1963–1989," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 33(3), pages 277-290, August.
- Joshua R. Goldstein & Michaela Kreyenfeld, 2011. "Has East Germany Overtaken West Germany? Recent Trends in Order‐Specific Fertility," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 37(3), pages 453-472, 09.
- Daniela Del Boca, 2002.
"The effect of child care and part time opportunities on participation and fertility decisions in Italy,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 15(3), pages 549-573.
- Del Boca, Daniela, 2002. "The Effect of Child Care and Part Time Opportunities on Participation and Fertility Decisions in Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 427, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Patricia Cortés & José Tessada, 2011. "Low-Skilled Immigration and the Labor Supply of Highly Skilled Women," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 88-123, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dem:wpaper:wp-2012-024. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peter Wilhelm)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.