Demand Externalities from Co-Location
We illustrate an approach to measure demand externalities from co-location by estimating household level changes in grocery spending at a supermarket among households that also buy gas at a co-located gas station, relative to those who do not. Controlling for observable and unobserved selection in the use of gas station, we find significant demand externalities; on average a household that buys gas has 7.7% to 9.3% increase in spending on groceries. Accounting for differences in gross margins, the profit from the grocery spillovers is 130% to 150% the profit from gasoline sales. The spillovers are moderated by store loyalty, with the gas station serving to cement the loyalty of store-loyal households. The grocery spillover effects are significant for traditional grocery products, but 23% larger for convenience stores. Thus co-location of a new category impacts both inter-format competition with respect to convenience stores (selling the new category) and intra-format competition with respect to other supermarkets (selling the existing categories).
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- Dora Gicheva & Justine Hastings & Sofia Villas-Boas, 2007.
"Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases,"
NBER Working Papers
13614, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gicheva, Dora & Hastings, Justine & Villas-Boas, Sofia B, 2008. "Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt7087m1p6, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Villas-Boas, Sofia B & Gicheva, Dora & Hastings, Justine, 2010. "Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt8448m75z, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
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- Edwin Leuven & Barbara Sianesi, 2003. "PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing," Statistical Software Components S432001, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 02 May 2017. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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