Jobs, Skills and Incomes in Ghana: How was poverty halved?
Poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women. While education, particularly at the post secondary level, is associated with far higher earnings there is no evidence that the increase in earnings that occurred over the period from1998 to 2005 is due to increased returns to education or increased levels of education. In contrast there is very strong evidence, for all levels of education, that the probability of having a public sector job approximately halved over the period from 1991 while the probability of having a job in a small firm increased very substantially. In 1991/92 a male worker with secondary education had a 7 per cent probability of being employed in a small firm, by 2005/06 this had increased to 20 per cent which was higher than the probability of being employed by the public sector. Employment in small firms, which is the low paying occupation within the urban sector, increased from 2.7 to 6.7 percent of the population, an increase from 225,000 to 886,000 employees. Jobs in total have been increasing in line with the population but the proportion of relatively low paying ones increased markedly from 1998/99 to 2005/06. The rises in income that occurred over this period were due almost entirely to increases in earnings rates, for given levels of education, across all job types particularly among the unskilled. Why unskilled earnings rates rose so rapidly is unclear.
|Date of creation:||2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Manor Road, Oxford, OX1 3UQ|
Phone: +44-(0)1865 271084
Fax: +44-(0)1865 281447
Web page: http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Steve Bond & Asli Leblebicioglu & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2004.
"Capital Accumulation and Growth: A New Look at the Empirical Evidence,"
2004-W08, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Steve Bond & Asli Leblebicioglu & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2010. "Capital accumulation and growth: a new look at the empirical evidence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(7), pages 1073-1099, November/.
- Bond, Steve & Asli, Leblebicioglu & Schiantarelli, Fabio, 2004. "Capital Accumulation and Growth: A New Look at the Empirical Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 1174, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Steve Bond & Asli Leblebicioglu & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2004. "Capital Accumulation and Growth: A New Look at the Empirical Evidence," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 591, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 02 Aug 2007.
- Stephen Bond & Asli Leblebicioglu, 2004. "Capital Accumulation and Growth: A New Look at the Empirical Evidence," Economics Series Working Papers 2004-W08, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon & John Knight, 2006.
"How flexible are wages in response to local unemployment in South Africa?,"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 59(3), pages 471-495, April.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon & John Knight, 2006. "How Flexible are Wages in Response to Local Unemployment in South Africa?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 59(3), pages 471-495, April.
- Geeta Kingdon & John Knight, 2005. "How Flexible are Wages in Response to Local Unemployment in South Africa?," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-015, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Måns Söderbom & Francis Teal, 2004.
"Size and Efficiency in African Manufacturing Firms:Evidence from Firm-Level Panel Data,"
Development and Comp Systems
- Soderbom, Mans & Teal, Francis, 2004. "Size and efficiency in African manufacturing firms: evidence from firm-level panel data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 369-394, February.
- Måns Söderbom & Francis Teal, 2002. "Size and efficiency in African manufacturing firms: Evidence from firm-level panel data," CSAE Working Paper Series 2002-07, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Louise Fox & Melissa Sekkel Gaal, 2008. "Working Out of Poverty : Job Creation and the Quality of Growth in Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6434.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:csa:wpaper:2010-01. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Richard Payne)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.