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Towards a History Friendly Model of Innovation, Market Structure and Regulation in the Dynamics of the Pharmaceutical Industry: the Age of Random Screening

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Abstract

In this paper we present a model of the long term dynamics of market structure and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry in a history friendly way. Our results show a strong increase in concentration in each therapeutic area, but a rather low level of concentration in the overall market. Innovative firms continue to maintain a key role. Both demand growth and increase in technological opportunities have similar effects on the role of innovative firms, exploration and total quality, but a contrasting effects on concentration (positive for demand growth, and less so for technological opportunities). We have also explored different situations of patent protection. As expected, an increase in patent protection increase concentration but decreases exploration, while the opposite holds for no patent protection. Interestingly enough, an increase in patent protection is not able to countervail the negative effects of no growth in demand as far as quality and exploratory activities are concerned. Finally, an increase in the cost of research or in the stringency of approval procedures have quite different effects on concentration, exploration and quality: the first increases concentration and reduces quality, the second does not affect concentration, but affects negatively exploration as well as quality.

Suggested Citation

  • Franco Malerba & Luigi Orsenigo, 2000. "Towards a History Friendly Model of Innovation, Market Structure and Regulation in the Dynamics of the Pharmaceutical Industry: the Age of Random Screening," KITeS Working Papers 124, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jan 2001.
  • Handle: RePEc:cri:cespri:wp124
    Note: A previous version of this model was presented at the Conference in Honour of Paul David: "New Frontiers in the Economics of Innovation and New Technologies", Turin, May 2000.
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Pisano, Gary P., 1991. "The governance of innovation: Vertical integration and collaborative arrangements in the biotechnology industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 237-249, June.
    2. Galambos, Louis & Sturchio, Jeffrey L., 1998. "Pharmaceutical Firms and the Transition to Biotechnology: A Study in Strategic Innovation," Business History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 72(02), pages 250-278, June.
    3. Henderson, Rebecca. & Cockburn, Iain., 1994. "Measuring competence? : exploring firm effects in pharmaceutical research," Working papers 3712-94., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    4. David J. TEECE, 2008. "Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: The Transfer And Licensing Of Know-How And Intellectual Property Understanding the Multinational Enterprise in the Modern World, chapter 5, pages 67-87 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Gambardella,Alfonso, 1995. "Science and Innovation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521451185, October.
    6. Bottazzi, Giulio & Dosi, Giovanni & Lippi, Marco & Pammolli, Fabio & Riccaboni, Massimo, 2001. "Innovation and corporate growth in the evolution of the drug industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 1161-1187, July.
    7. Henderson, Rebecca., 1994. "The evolution of integrative capability : innovation in cardiovascular drug discovery," Working papers 3711-94., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    8. Gambardella, Alfonso & Orsenigo, Luigi & Pammolli, Fabio, 2000. "Global Competitiveness in Pharmaceuticals: A European Perspective," MPRA Paper 15965, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Malerba, Franco & Nelson, Richard & Orsenigo, Luigi & Winter, Sidney, 2001. "Competition and industrial policies in a 'history friendly' model of the evolution of the computer industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 635-664, April.
    10. Arora, Ashish & Gambardella, Alfonso, 1990. "Complementarity and External Linkages: The Strategies of the Large Firms in Biotechnology," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(4), pages 361-379, June.
    11. Malerba, Franco, et al, 1999. "'History-Friendly' Models of Industry Evolution: The Computer Industry," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 3-40, March.
    12. Merges, Robert P. & Nelson, Richard R., 1994. "On limiting or encouraging rivalry in technical progress: The effect of patent scope decisions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 1-24, September.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Industrial dynamics; Market structure; Innovation; Patents; Pharmaceutical industry;

    JEL classification:

    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General
    • L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology; Plastics
    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital

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