IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cpr/ceprdp/3832.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Heterogeneity of Investors and Asset Pricing in a Risk-Value World

Author

Listed:
  • Franke, Günter
  • Weber, Martin

Abstract

Portfolio choice and the implied asset pricing are usually derived assuming maximization of expected utility. In this Paper, they are derived from risk-value models that generalize the Markowitz-model. We use a behaviourally based risk measure with an endogenous or exogenous benchmark. If the risk measure is modelled by a negative HARA-function, then sharing rules are convex or concave relative to each other. A measure of heterogeneity of investors is derived. More heterogeneity (a) raises convexity/concavity of sharing rules and, thus, the need of investors to trade options, (b) increases convexity of the pricing kernel, (c) raises option prices relative to the price of the under-lying asset and (d) raises the variance and kurtosis of the risk-neutral probability distribution of the aggregate pay-off.

Suggested Citation

  • Franke, Günter & Weber, Martin, 2003. "Heterogeneity of Investors and Asset Pricing in a Risk-Value World," CEPR Discussion Papers 3832, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3832
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=3832
    Download Restriction: CEPR Discussion Papers are free to download for our researchers, subscribers and members. If you fall into one of these categories but have trouble downloading our papers, please contact us at subscribers@cepr.org
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Benninga, Simon & Blume, Marshall E, 1985. "On the Optimality of Portfolio Insurance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(5), pages 1341-1352, December.
    2. Mehra, Rajnish & Prescott, Edward C., 1985. "The equity premium: A puzzle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 145-161, March.
    3. Tuomo Vuolteenaho, 2002. "What Drives Firm-Level Stock Returns?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 233-264, February.
    4. Daniel Kahneman & Peter P. Wakker & Rakesh Sarin, 1997. "Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(2), pages 375-406.
    5. Kimball, Miles S, 1990. "Precautionary Saving in the Small and in the Large," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 53-73, January.
    6. Brennan, M.J. & Solanki, R., 1981. "Optimal Portfolio Insurance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 279-300, September.
    7. Sarin, Rakesh K. & Weber, Martin, 1993. "Risk-value models," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 135-149, October.
    8. Dybvig, Philip H, 1988. "Distributional Analysis of Portfolio Choice," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(3), pages 369-393, July.
    9. Richard H. Thaler & Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman & Alan Schwartz, 1997. "The Effect of Myopia and Loss Aversion on Risk Taking: An Experimental Test," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(2), pages 647-661.
    10. Longstaff, Francis A, 1995. "Option Pricing and the Martingale Restriction," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(4), pages 1091-1124.
    11. Leland, Hayne E, 1980. "Who Should Buy Portfolio Insurance?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(2), pages 581-594, May.
    12. Jackwerth, Jens Carsten, 2000. "Recovering Risk Aversion from Option Prices and Realized Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(2), pages 433-451.
    13. David C. Nachman, 1988. "Spanning and Completeness with Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(3), pages 311-328.
    14. Kalok Chan & Y. Peter Chung & Wai-Ming Fong, 2002. "The Informational Role of Stock and Option Volume," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1049-1075.
    15. Uri Gneezy & Arie Kapteyn & Jan Potters, 2003. "Evaluation Periods and Asset Prices in a Market Experiment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(2), pages 821-838, April.
    16. Terrance Odean, 1998. "Are Investors Reluctant to Realize Their Losses?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(5), pages 1775-1798, October.
    17. Chris Starmer, 2000. "Developments in Non-expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(2), pages 332-382, June.
    18. Weber, Martin & Camerer, Colin F., 1998. "The disposition effect in securities trading: an experimental analysis," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 167-184, January.
    19. Guntar Franke & Richard C. Stapleton & Marti G. Subrahmanyam, 1999. "When are Options Overpriced? The Black-Scholes Model and Alternative Characterizations of the Pricing Kernel," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-003, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    20. Franke, Günter & Stapleton, Richard C. & Subrahmanyam, Marti G., 1999. "When are Options Overpriced? The Black-Scholes Model and Alternative Characterisations of the Pricing Kernel," CoFE Discussion Papers 99/01, University of Konstanz, Center of Finance and Econometrics (CoFE).
    21. Franke, Gunter & Stapleton, Richard C. & Subrahmanyam, Marti G., 1998. "Who Buys and Who Sells Options: The Role of Options in an Economy with Background Risk," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 89-109, September.
    22. David E. Bell, 1995. "A Contextual Uncertainty Condition for Behavior Under Risk," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 41(7), pages 1145-1150, July.
    23. De Bondt, Werner F M & Thaler, Richard, 1985. "Does the Stock Market Overreact?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 793-805, July.
    24. Simon Benninga & Marshall Blume, "undated". "On the Optimality of Portfolio Insurance," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 5-85, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    25. Keller, L. Robin & Sarin, Rakesh K. & Weber, Martin, 1986. "Empirical investigation of some properties of the perceived riskiness of gambles," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 114-130, August.
    26. Grossman, Sanford J & Zhou, Zhongquan, 1996. "Equilibrium Analysis of Portfolio Insurance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1379-1403, September.
    27. Marti G. Subrahmanyam & Günter Franke & Richard C. Stapleton, 1998. "Who Buys and Who Sells Options: The Role and Pricing of Options in an Economy with Background Risk," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-063, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    28. Bawa, Vijay S. & Lindenberg, Eric B., 1977. "Capital market equilibrium in a mean-lower partial moment framework," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 189-200, November.
    29. Rubinstein, Mark, 1974. "An aggregation theorem for securities markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 225-244, September.
    30. Weber, Elke U. & Anderson, Carolyn J. & Birnbaum, Michael H., 1992. "A theory of perceived risk and attractiveness," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 492-523, August.
    31. Jianmin Jia & James S. Dyer & John C. Butler, 1999. "Measures of Perceived Risk," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(4), pages 519-532, April.
    32. Simon Benninga & Marshall Blume, "undated". "On the Optimality of Portfolio Insurance," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 05-85, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    33. Elke U. Weber & Richard A. Milliman, 1997. "Perceived Risk Attitudes: Relating Risk Perception to Risky Choice," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(2), pages 123-144, February.
    34. Nicholas Barberis & Ming Huang & Tano Santos, 2001. "Prospect Theory and Asset Prices," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(1), pages 1-53.
    35. Benninga, Simon & Mayshar, Joram, 2000. "Heterogeneity and option pricing," Research Report 00E08, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
    36. K. Geert Rouwenhorst, 1998. "International Momentum Strategies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 267-284, February.
    37. Cass, David & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1970. "The structure of investor preferences and asset returns, and separability in portfolio allocation: A contribution to the pure theory of mutual funds," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 122-160, June.
    38. Christensen, B. J. & Prabhala, N. R., 1998. "The relation between implied and realized volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 125-150, November.
    39. Kraus, Alan & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1976. "Skewness Preference and the Valuation of Risk Assets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(4), pages 1085-1100, September.
    40. repec:dgr:rugsom:00e08 is not listed on IDEAS
    41. P. Carr & D. Madan, 2001. "Optimal positioning in derivative securities," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 19-37.
    42. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan & Titman, Sheridan, 1993. "Returns to Buying Winners and Selling Losers: Implications for Stock Market Efficiency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 65-91, March.
    43. Elke U. Weber & Christopher Hsee, 1998. "Cross-Cultural Differences in Risk Perception, but Cross-Cultural Similarities in Attitudes Towards Perceived Risk," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(9), pages 1205-1217, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Markus Glaser & Martin Weber, 2003. "Momentum and Turnover: Evidence from the German Stock Market," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 55(2), pages 108-135, April.
    2. Lüders, Erik, 2002. "Asset Prices and Alternative Characterizations of the Pricing Kernel," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-10, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    3. Sohnke M. Bartram & Frank R. Fehle, 2003. "Alternative Market Structures for Derivatives," Finance 0311007, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 12 Dec 2003.
    4. Sohnke M. Bartram & Frank R. Fehle, 2003. "Competition among Alternative Option Market Structures: Evidence from Eurex vs. Euwax," Finance 0307005, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 06 Nov 2003.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-330 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Bertrand, Philippe & Prigent, Jean-luc, 2016. "Equilibrium of financial derivative markets under portfolio insurance constraints," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PA), pages 278-291.
    3. Daniel, Kent & Hirshleifer, David & Teoh, Siew Hong, 2002. "Investor psychology in capital markets: evidence and policy implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 139-209, January.
    4. Jakusch, Sven Thorsten, 2017. "On the applicability of maximum likelihood methods: From experimental to financial data," SAFE Working Paper Series 148, Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE.
    5. Weber, Martin & Welfens, Frank, 2007. "How do Markets React to Fundamental Shocks? An Experimental Analysis on Underreaction and Momentum," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 07-42, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
    6. Dangl, Thomas & Randl, Otto & Zechner, Josef, 2016. "Risk control in asset management: Motives and concepts," CFS Working Paper Series 546, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    7. Chabi-Yo, Fousseni & Ruenzi, Stefan & Weigert, Florian, 2018. "Crash Sensitivity and the Cross Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 53(3), pages 1059-1100, June.
    8. Bertrand, Philippe & Prigent, Jean-luc, 2011. "Omega performance measure and portfolio insurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1811-1823, July.
    9. Franke, Gunter & Stapleton, Richard C. & Subrahmanyam, Marti G., 1998. "Who Buys and Who Sells Options: The Role of Options in an Economy with Background Risk," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 89-109, September.
    10. Hara, Chiaki & Huang, James & Kuzmics, Christoph, 2007. "Representative consumer's risk aversion and efficient risk-sharing rules," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 137(1), pages 652-672, November.
    11. Henrik Svedsater & Niklas Karlsson & Tommy Garling, 2009. "Momentum trading, disposition effects and prediction of future share prices: an experimental study of multiple reference points in responses to short- and long-run return trends," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(8), pages 595-610.
    12. Arjen Siegmann & André Lucas, 2002. "Explaining Hedge Fund Investment Styles by Loss Aversion," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-046/2, Tinbergen Institute.
    13. Judd, Kenneth L. & Leisen, Dietmar P.J., 2010. "Equilibrium open interest," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2578-2600, December.
    14. Sami Attaoui & Vincent Lacoste, 2013. "A scenario-based description of optimal American capital guaranteed strategies," Post-Print hal-00867667, HAL.
    15. Vohra, Suprita & Fabozzi, Frank J., 2019. "Effectiveness of developed and emerging market FX options in active currency risk management," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 130-146.
    16. Lim, Terence & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C. & Scholes, Myron S., 2006. "The Derivatives Sourcebook," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(5–6), pages 365-572, April.
    17. Bakshi, Gurdip & Madan, Dilip & Panayotov, George, 2010. "Returns of claims on the upside and the viability of U-shaped pricing kernels," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 130-154, July.
    18. Grinblatt, Mark & Han, Bing, 2001. "The Disposition Effect and Momentum," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt6qg5d62p, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
    19. Hara, Chiaki & Huang, James & Kuzmics, Christoph, 2011. "Effects of background risks on cautiousness with an application to a portfolio choice problem," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(1), pages 346-358, January.
    20. Lüders, Erik & Franke, Günter, 2005. "Return predictability and stock market crashes in a simple rational expectations model," CoFE Discussion Papers 05/05, University of Konstanz, Center of Finance and Econometrics (CoFE).
    21. Boyle, Phelim & Tian, Weidong, 2008. "The design of equity-indexed annuities," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 303-315, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    asset pricing; convexity of pricing kernal; decision-making under risk; heterogeneity of investors;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3832. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: https://www.cepr.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.