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Measures of Perceived Risk

Author

Listed:
  • Jianmin Jia

    (Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong)

  • James S. Dyer

    (Department of Management Science and Information Systems, The Graduate School of Business, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712)

  • John C. Butler

    (Department of Accounting and MIS, Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)

Abstract

Based on our previous work on the standard measure of risk, this paper presents two classes of measures for perceived risk by decomposing a lottery into its mean and standard risk. One of the classes of our risk measures presumes that there is no risk when there is no uncertainty involved, and the other allows different degenerate lotteries to be evaluated with different values of "risk." The former has more prescriptive appeal in risky decision making, but the latter may have more descriptive power for subjective risk judgments. Our risk measures can also take into account the asymmetric effects of losses and gains on perceived risk based on an appropriate choice of the standard measure of risk. The perceived risk models we propose unify a large body of empirical evidence regarding risk judgments, and provide sufficient flexibility to better capture people's perceptions of risk than previously developed risk models. In particular, our risk measures provide clear ways to accommodate financial measures of risk and psychological measures of risk, and they can be incorporated into preference models in an appealing form based on mean-risk tradeoffs.

Suggested Citation

  • Jianmin Jia & James S. Dyer & John C. Butler, 1999. "Measures of Perceived Risk," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(4), pages 519-532, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:45:y:1999:i:4:p:519-532
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.45.4.519
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Sarin, Rakesh K. & Weber, Martin, 1993. "Risk-value models," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 135-149, October.
    2. David E. Bell, 1988. "One-Switch Utility Functions and a Measure of Risk," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(12), pages 1416-1424, December.
    3. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-291, March.
    4. Jianmin Jia & James S. Dyer, 1996. "A Standard Measure of Risk and Risk-Value Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(12), pages 1691-1705, December.
    5. Rothschild, Michael & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1970. "Increasing risk: I. A definition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 225-243, September.
    6. Peter C. Fishburn, 1984. "Foundations of Risk Measurement. I. Risk As Probable Loss," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(4), pages 396-406, April.
    7. Graham Loomes & Robert Sugden, 1986. "Disappointment and Dynamic Consistency in Choice under Uncertainty," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(2), pages 271-282.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Guo, Dongmei & Hu, Yi & Wang, Shouyang & Zhao, Lin, 2016. "Comparing risks with reference points: A stochastic dominance approach," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 105-116.
    2. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:1478-1488 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Alexandra A. Mislin & Peter A. Boumgarden & Daisung Jang & William P. Bottom, 2015. "Accounting for reciprocity in negotiation and social exchange," Judgment and Decision Making, Society for Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 10(6), pages 571-589, November.
    4. Venkatraman, Srinivasan & Aloysius, John A. & Davis, Fred D., 2006. "Multiple prospect framing and decision behavior: The mediational roles of perceived riskiness and perceived ambiguity," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 59-73, September.
    5. Kaufmann, Christine & Weber, Martin, 2013. "Sometimes less is more – The influence of information aggregation on investment decisions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 20-33.
    6. Yang, Jiping & Qiu, Wanhua, 2005. "A measure of risk and a decision-making model based on expected utility and entropy," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 164(3), pages 792-799, August.
    7. Matos, Manuel A., 2007. "Decision under risk as a multicriteria problem," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 181(3), pages 1516-1529, September.
    8. He, Ying & Huang, Rui-Hua, 2008. "Risk attributes theory: Decision making under risk," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 186(1), pages 243-260, April.

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