End user prices in liberalised energy markets
As European energy markets move towards deregulation, energy prices shift from classic â€˜cost plus' prices towards market prices. Read also the accompanying press release . We develop a model for the retail and wholesale energy markets in Europe, based on Bertrand competition in a two part pricing structure with switching costs. We use the model to forecast end user electricity and natural gas prices and find that the introduction of competition in energy retail and wholesale markets will decrease standing charges, lowering total costs for energy users. A larger number of entrants, a cost advantage for one of the suppliers, or lower switching costs reduces standing charges further.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2002|
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- Lewis, Tracy R. & Sappington, David E. M., 1999. "Access pricing with unregulated downstream competition," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 73-100, March.
- Andrew A. Goett & Kathleen Hudson & Kenneth E. Train, 2000. "Customers' Choice Among Retail Energy Suppliers: The Willingness-to-Pay for Service Attributes," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 1-28.
- Jean-Jacques Laffont & Patrick Rey & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Network Competition: I. Overview and Nondiscriminatory Pricing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(1), pages 1-37, Spring.
- Calem, Paul S. & Spulber, Daniel F., 1984. "Multiproduct two part tariffs," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 105-115, June.
- Armstrong, Thomas O. & Leppel, Karen, 1994. "Are regulated and potentially unregulated combination gas and electric utilities natural monopolies?," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 195-206, August.
- Jean-Jacques Laffont & Patrick Rey & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Network Competition: II. Price Discrimination," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(1), pages 38-56, Spring.
- Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Rey, Patrick & Tirole, Jean, 1997. "Competition between telecommunications operators," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 701-711, April.
- Gerald Granderson, 2000. "Regulation, Open-Access Transportation, and Productive Efficiency," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 16(3), pages 251-266, May.
- Green, Richard, 2000. "Can Competition Replace Regulation for Small Utility Customers?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2406, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Mark Lijesen, 2002. "Welfare effects of vertical integration in energy distribution," CPB Memorandum 43, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
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