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Fixed price plus rationing: an experiment

  • GRIMM, Veronika
  • KOVARIK, Jaromir
  • PONTI, Giovanni

This paper explores, theoretically and experimentally, a fixed-price mechanism bywhich, if aggregate demand exceeds supply, bidders are proportionally rationed. Ifdemand is uncertain, equilibrium consists in overstating true demand to alleviate theeffects of being rationed. Overstating is more intense the lower the price, with bidsreaching their upper limit for sufficiently low prices. In the experiment, despite of asignificant proportion of equilibrium play, subjects tend to (under)overbid the equilibriumstrategy when rationing is (high) low, with only this latter effect being persistentover time. We explain the experimental evidence by a simple model in which theprobability of a deviation is decreasing in the expected loss associated with it.

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Paper provided by Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE) in its series CORE Discussion Papers with number 2005039.

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Date of creation: 00 Jun 2005
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Handle: RePEc:cor:louvco:2005039
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  1. Simon P. Anderson & Jacob K. Goeree & Charles A. Holt, 1999. "Stochastic Game Theory: Adjustment to Equilibrium Under Noisy Directional Learning," Virginia Economics Online Papers 327, University of Virginia, Department of Economics.
  2. Carmen Herrero & Juan D. Moreno-Ternero & Giovanni Ponti, 2009. "On the Adjudication of Conflicting Claims: An Experimental Study," Working Papers 2009-5, Universidad de Málaga, Department of Economic Theory, Málaga Economic Theory Research Center.
  3. Veronika Grimm & Jürgen Bierbaum, 2004. "Selling Shares To Retail Investors: Auction Vs. Fixed Price," Working Papers. Serie AD 2004-08, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  4. Nir Dagan & Roberto Serrano & Oscar Volij, 1997. "A Noncooperative View of Consistent Bankruptcy Rules," Economic theory and game theory 005, Nir Dagan.
  5. Jacob K. Goeree & Charles A. Holt & Thomas R. Palfrey, 2000. "Quantal Response Equilibrium and Overbidding in Private-Value Auctions," Virginia Economics Online Papers 345, University of Virginia, Department of Economics.
  6. Veronika Grimm & Giovanni Ponti & Jaromir Kovarik, 2006. "Fixed priced plus rationing: An experiment," Working Papers. Serie AD 2006-26, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  7. Herrero, Carmen & Villar, Antonio, 2001. "The three musketeers: four classical solutions to bankruptcy problems," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 307-328, November.
  8. Dirk Engelmann & Veronika Grimm, 2004. "Bidding Behavior In Multi-Unit Auctions - An Experimental Investigation And Some Theoretical Insights," Working Papers. Serie AD 2004-12, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  9. Hervé Moulin, 2000. "Priority Rules and Other Asymmetric Rationing Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(3), pages 643-684, May.
  10. Chun, Youngsub, 1989. "A noncooperative justification for egalitarian surplus sharing," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 245-261, June.
  11. Anderson, Simon P. & Goeree, Jacob K. & Holt, Charles A., 2001. "Minimum-Effort Coordination Games: Stochastic Potential and Logit Equilibrium," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 177-199, February.
  12. Rosenthal, Robert W, 1989. "A Bounded-Rationality Approach to the Study of Noncooperative Games," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 273-91.
  13. McKelvey Richard D. & Palfrey Thomas R., 1995. "Quantal Response Equilibria for Normal Form Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 6-38, July.
  14. Dagan, N. & Serrano, R. & Volij, O.C., 1994. "A Non-Cooperative View of Consistent Bankruptcy Rules," Discussion Paper 1994-11, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  15. Kagel, John H & Levin, Dan, 2001. "Behavior in Multi-unit Demand Auctions: Experiments with Uniform Price and Dynamic Vickrey Auctions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(2), pages 413-54, March.
  16. David Lucking-Reiley & John A. List, 2000. "Demand Reduction in Multiunit Auctions: Evidence from a Sportscard Field Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 961-972, September.
  17. Urs Fischbacher, 2007. "z-Tree: Zurich toolbox for ready-made economic experiments," Experimental Economics, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 171-178, June.
  18. Thomas Palfrey, 2002. "Quantal Response Equilibrium and Overbidding in Private Value Auctions," Theory workshop papers 357966000000000089, UCLA Department of Economics.
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