International Trade, Migration And Investment With Horizontal Product Differentiation And Free Entry And Exit Of Firms
This paper builds on a circular road model of the world with horizontal product differentiation and free entry and exit of firms, to derive results that can be applied in industrial organization, international trade and political economy. The model shows that freer international trade increases welfare -with ideal variety preferences through the exploitation of economies of scale and better allocative efficiency; that all participating countries gain from trade, and that smaller countries have more to win from free trade than larger countries. The model also explains that there may be adjustment costs when liberalizing trade and thus, political resistance to trade liberalization. International migration can also be analyzed with the model, showing the possibility of suboptimal migration flows and political barriers to the exit of national citizens. The model suggests that foreign direct investment will be welfare improving for the source country in the short run, and for the receiving country in the long run. Finally, the model provides a micro foundation for the use of demand curves with constant and negative slopes.
|Date of creation:||05 Nov 2005|
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- B. Curtis Eaton & Richard G. Lipsey, 1975.
"The Principle of Minimum Differentiation Reconsidered: Some New Developments in the Theory of Spatial Competition,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 42(1), pages 27-49.
- B.Curtis Eaton & Richard G. Lipsey, 1972. "The Principle of Minimum Differentiation Reconsidered: Some New Developments in the Theory of Spatial Competition," Working Papers 87, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Boccard, N. & Wauthy, Xavier, 1997. "Export Restraints and Horizontal Product Differentiation," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 1997024, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), revised 00 Sep 1997.
- BOCCARD, Nicolas & WAUTHY, Xavier, 1997. "Export restraints and horizontal product differentiation," CORE Discussion Papers 1997082, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Schmitt, Nicolas, 1995. "Product Imitation, Product Differentiation and International Trade," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(3), pages 583-608, August.
- Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
- Krugman, Paul R., 1979. "Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 469-479, November.
- Cabral, Luis M. B., 2000. "Introduction to Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262032864, January.
- Nicolas Schmitt, 1990. "Two-Country Trade Liberalization in an Address Model of Product Differentiation," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 23(3), pages 654-675, August. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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