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Une analyse de la dynamique de la dépendance à l'assistance-emploi des populations natives et immigrantes québécoises

  • Guy Lacroix
  • Gino Santarossa
  • Pierre Gagné

Many recent empirical studies have shown that recent cohorts of immigrants to western countries face more hardship than previous cohorts. In Quebec, for instance, the welfare dependency rates of immigrants have steadily increased between 1982 and 1998 and are insensitive to fluctuations in the business cycles, contrary to what has been observed for natives. This study seeks to better understand the process of economic and social integration of immigrants to Quebec as seen through their dependency toward the employment-assistance program (welfare benefits program), relative to that of the natives. The analysis focuses on the dynamics of participation to the employment-assistance program between January 1975 and March 2000. The study is divided into separate sections: 1. A comparative analysis of schooling and income between natives and immigrants of Quebec, Ontario and British-Columbia. 2. A descriptive analysis of socio-demographic characteristics and participation rates in the employment-insurance program between 1975 and 2000. 3. An econometric analysis of the dynamics of program participation that highlights the contribution of many factors to the observed dynamics as well as the immigration status. Plusieurs recherches empiriques récentes ont établi que les cohortes récentes d'immigrants dans de nombreux pays occidentaux éprouvent davantage de difficultés à intégrer le marché du travail que les cohortes plus anciennes. Au Québec, les taux de dépendance à l'assistance-emploi de la clientèle immigrante sont croissants durant toute la période de 1982 à 1998 et varient très peu en fonction de la conjoncture économique, contrairement à ce qui est observé pour les natifs. Cette étude vise principalement à avoir une meilleure connaissance de l'intégration économique et sociale des immigrants au Québec vue à travers leur dépendance à l'assistance-emploi et comparée par rapport à celle des prestataires natifs. Dans l'étude, l'analyse de la dynamique de participation au programme d'assistance-emploi est examinée à partir des épisodes ayant débuté entre janvier 1975 et mars 2000. Dans l'étude, trois volets sont abordés : 1. Une évolution comparée de la scolarité et du revenu annuel moyen pour les populations natives et immigrantes résidant au Québec, en Ontario et en Colombie-Britannique; 2. Une description, des principales caractéristiques socio-démographiques des prestataires natifs et des prestataires immigrants présents au cours des années 1975 à 2000 et une analyse comparative de la dynamique de participation au programme d'assistance-emploi; 3. Une analyse économétrique comparative qui mesure la contribution de nombreux facteurs aux fluctuations de la dépendance à l'assistance-emploi.

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Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Project Reports with number 2003rp-14.

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Length: 86 pages
Date of creation: 01 Oct 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2003rp-14
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  1. Hansen, Jörgen & Lofstrom, Magnus, 1999. "Immigrant Assimilation and Welfare Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate Into or Out-of Welfare," IZA Discussion Papers 100, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Riphahn, Regina, 1999. "Immigrant Participation in Social Assistance Programs: Evidence from German Guestworkers," CEPR Discussion Papers 2318, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economics of Immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1667-1717, December.
  4. Barrett, Garry F., 2000. "The effect of educational attainment on welfare dependence: Evidence from Canada," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 209-232, August.
  5. Fortin, Bernard & Lacroix, Guy, 1997. "Welfare Benefits, Minimum Wage Rate and the Duration of Welfare Spells: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Canada," Cahiers de recherche 9708, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  6. Jennifer Stewart & Martin D. Dooley, 1999. "The Duration of Spells on Welfare and Off Welfare Among Lone Mothers in Ontario," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 25(s1), pages 47-72, November.
  7. George J. Borjas, 1998. "Immigration and Welfare Magnets," NBER Working Papers 6813, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Bruce D. Meyer, 1988. "Unemployment Insurance And Unemployment Spells," NBER Working Papers 2546, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. David Card, 1989. "The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 3069, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Alan G. Green & David A. Green, 1995. "Canadian Immigration Policy: The Effectiveness of the Point System and Other Instruments," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(4b), pages 1006-41, November.
  11. David E. Bloom & Gilles Grenier & Morley Gunderson, 1994. "The Changing Labor Market Position of Canadian Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 4672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Borjas, George J. & Trejo, Stephen J., 1993. "National origin and immigrant welfare recipiency," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 325-344, March.
  13. Edin, P.-A. & Lalonde, R.J. & Aslund, O., 2000. "Emigration of Immigrants and Measures of Immigrant Assimilation: Evidence from Sweden," Papers 2000-13, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  14. Michael Baker & Dwayne Benjamin, 1995. "The Receipt of Transfer Payments by Immigrants to Canada," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(4), pages 650-676.
  15. repec:tpr:qjecon:v:111:y:1996:i:2:p:575-604 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Borjas, George J, 1985. "Assimilation, Changes in Cohort Quality, and the Earnings of Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(4), pages 463-89, October.
  17. George J. Borjas & Stephen J. Trejo, 1991. "Immigrant participation in the welfare system," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(2), pages 195-211, January.
  18. George J. Borjas & Lynette Hilton, 1995. "Immigration and the Welfare State: Immigrant Participation in Means- Tested Entitlement Programs," NBER Working Papers 5372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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